[FPSPACE] Khrunichev's history photo archive
japio at dds.nl
Sat Feb 24 05:34:50 EST 2007
There are 3 books published by Krunishev 90 years
1) 1916-1960 mostly airplanes
2) 1961-2006 space
number 3 is a photo book published by military parade with lots of
pictures with captions in english and russian.
I told this forum that I had obtained lots of books last year during
my Siberian trip and now during 100 year of SP Korolev.
Only one of you asked me the titles.
So here they come.
New books from Natalia Koroleva 3 books
part 2 Tsertok
60 years NII4 Jubileni
Jaroslave Golovanov Fakti & Mifi new edition 2 books
Vladimir Gubarev Sekretni atom 2006
History of KIK part 1 2006
50 years NPO PM im Kuznetsov 2006
60 years MIT on stratigic way 2006
70 years NII 1 im Keldish 2003
Vimpel 35 years System RKO 2004
NIIP im Tichomirov 50 years 2005
Aeropribor Voschod 60 years in aviation and space 2004
Kuznetzov engine factory Samara 90 years nas general
Nazemlja i v Kosmose 60 years KBOM 2001
50 years MOKB MARS in aviation ,rocketry and space 2005
Off course not all these books you can buy in the shop I have to phone
people go places etc etc.
Anyone who has the chance or friends in the headquarters of Roscosmos
on the second floor there is a kiosk with books from
Restartpublishing house and others . But without propusk no entry.
Than there are some books published from the hands of cosmonauts and
generals also many books about veterans (vospominaite)
Thats why the last 2 times in Russia I had to go back to Amsterdam by
bus. Too much books.
By the way to travel by bus in europe and Russia is the cheapest and
less problematic way to travel.
For now thats all.
I'll am now making a list of surplus books (most second hand ) and
send it to anyone interested
Quoting Rex Hall <rex at rexhallassociates.com>:
> It is also a book if you can get a copy.
> -----Original Message-----
> From: fpspace-bounces at friends-partners.org
> [mailto:fpspace-bounces at friends-partners.org] On Behalf Of Jim Oberg
> Sent: 22 February 2007 21:38
> To: fpspace at friends-partners.org
> Subject: [FPSPACE] Khrunichev's history photo archive
> Khrunichev's history photo archive
> NK (Zheleznyakov) notes a new history archive at
> http://www.khrunichev.ru/, specifically the six pdf files
> labeled 'foto' (with 'phi' for 'f', for non-cyrillic readers).
> Thank you, Aleksandr!!
> The images on these six big pdf files are awesome -- give
> yourself several hours to browse through them and copy down
> the ones you want to keep. But note -- NO interior or fabrication
> images of the Polyus-Skif vehicle, even though it is discussed.
> Captions and text are in Russian and English.
> Here's the full text of the manned space station section, for discussion.
> Several eye-opening claims, including that the loss of Salyut-7 was
> due to a Mission Control Center human error.
> First Manned Space Stations
> In developing the domestic missiles and spacecraft, there were some
> priorities gradually shaped in allocating technical assignments among major
> Russian scientific, design and production organizations and enterprises.
> Specifically, starting from the mid-1960s, the Khrunichev Plant (later the
> Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center) built the Almaz and
> Mir space stations, all heavy modules designed to dock with spacecraft in
> orbit, and threeseat recoverable vehicles. The same enterprise also
> manufactured Russian elements of the ISS, Zarya and Zvezda. While involved
> in one of the first piloted Russian space programs, the Khrunichev Plant
> made the Almaz space complex, which Academician V.N. Chelomei proposed to
> develop at the end of 1964.
> The complex was ordered by the Defense Ministry and designed for
> communications and image intelligence collection, preliminary analysis by
> the crew and subsequent forwarding to the Earth. The duration of the complex
> operation in orbit and effectiveness of the mission solution depended on its
> power capacity and replenishment, crew delivery and rotation, the needed
> supplies and ability to operate both in piloted and automatic modes.
> The Khrunichev Plant was specifically picked up as the basis for
> implementing this complicated large-scale project. The high production and
> technical potential had already allowed it to manufacture Tupolev and
> Myasishchev aircraft, as well as the UR-100, UR-200 and UR-500 missiles.
> That is why in 1969 it was tasked to build Almaz stations and Transport
> Supply Spacecraft (TKS) - sophisticated 20-ton manned spacecraft.
> Under the project, once docked with the Almaz, the TKS should supply
> power and provide orientation and control of the complex for a long time, as
> well as lift it to a higher orbit. The TKS was made up of two independent
> modules - a functional cargo block (FGB) and a return vehicle (RV).
> By early 1970, the plant made frame structures for eight test and two
> flight orbital stations, but their furnishing with instruments and systems,
> as well as their full-scale development testing and manufacture was delayed.
> Therefore the national leadership decreed that the technological
> achievements made under the Almaz project be used to develop Salyut orbital
> stations, which would be fitted with systems from manned spacecraft that
> were already being built by the Korolev design bureau. Cosmonauts and
> supplies would be delivered by the proven Soyuz spacecraft.
> The strenuous efforts by all workers of the space industry made it
> possible to launch the world's first Salyut long-duration orbital station
> (DOS-1), using the Proton launch vehicle, on April 19, 1971. This date is
> considered the birthday of orbital stations. Thus, the Soviet Union retained
> its superiority in manned exploration of outer space.
> On April 23, 1971, the Soyuz-10 manned spacecraft flew to the station,
> but it failed to dock with the station, and two days later cosmonauts V.A.
> Shatalov, A.S. Yeliseyev and N.N. Rukavishnikov returned to the Earth.
> Another manned spacecraft, Soyuz-11, docked to the station in June 1971. The
> two docked spacecraft flew together for three weeks, but during the return
> to the Earth the Soyuz-11 crew of G.T. Dobrovolsky, V.N. Volkov and V.I.
> Patsayev died because of a sudden loss of cabin pressure in the Soyuz. The
> orbital station continued to function unmanned until October 11, 1971, when
> it was deorbited and sank in the ocean.
> In July 1972, another station, the DOS-2, was launched, but the mission
> failed because of the malfunctioning of the Proton launch vehicle.
> In May 1973, the DOS-3 (Kosmos-557 satellite) was lifted into orbit, but
> orientation faults forced a decision to bring it down.
> In the meantime, the construction of the Almaz manned orbital station and
> the TKS were underway, albeit at a different pace. This was due to the fact
> that the TKS was an absolutely novel spacecraft that was superior to both
> Soyuz and Almaz in terms of capabilities and equipment. That was why it was
> decided to bring crews to the Almaz station by Soyuz spacecraft, until the
> TKS was made.
> An essential part of the TKS was a three-seat return vehicle (RV).
> Chelomei ordered the Fili branch of the Central Design Bureau of
> Machine-Building to make RV frame structures, thermal protection and life
> support systems, automatic systems, docking mechanisms, and other units. The
> return vehicle was intended to deliver and retrieve crews from the station
> to the Earth and was to be capable of making up to ten missions upon the
> restoration of its thermal protective shell.
> For reliability testing, the Fili branch built a masssize evaluation
> model (LVI) - a full analog of the TKS.
> Full-scale tests of an emergency recovery system and the RV were
> conducted on Site 51 of the Baikonur cosmodrome. Between 1974 and 1977, five
> launches were carried out. During the testing, all elements of the
> separation system functioned well, in accordance with the launch sequence.
> After the RV went up to an altitude of 2 km, an extraction parachute was
> actuated, followed by a drogue parachute, with three landing parachutes
> released thereafter. All the five launches were a success.
> The first launch of the RV (LVI-1) was made by the Proton LV in December
> 1976. Two spacecraft made a single revolution and landed in a designated
> area. Several successful launches were carried out, with one of the RVs used
> for three missions to space and backward.
> The first TKS of the Almaz complex, designated Kosmos-929, was launched
> on July 17, 1977. A month later, a return vehicle left the spacecraft and
> landed normally on the landing range. After successfully fulfilling the
> program, the Kosmos-929 terminated the free flight on February 3, 1978. Then
> it was decided to close the Almaz manned flight program and subsequently use
> the return vehicle only for retrieving cargoes from space.
> The first launch of the Almaz under the Salyut program was made on April
> 3, 1973. The station was named Salyut-2, although it was different from the
> first version of the first Salyut (DOS-1) in many respects (the DOS-2,
> launched on July 29, 1972, did not enter the orbit because of a failure in
> the launch vehicle and therefore was given no designation).
> On the 13th day of the autonomous flight, after the readiness of all
> systems had been tested, the space station depressurized, and on April 28
> the station was deorbited.
> The next station, Salyut-3, launched on June 25, 1974, was more
> successful. In July, a launch vehicle brought a crew of P.R. Popovich and
> Yu.P. Artyukhin to the station, who carried out the flight mission
> successfully. They took pictures in flight, and the film was taken in a
> special capsule to the Earth by means of a technological camera used for
> information retrieval.
> The cosmonauts returned to the Earth on July 19, while on September 23
> the return vehicle with the collected information was retrieved from the
> station on command from the Earth and landed in a preset area.
> According to the scheduled program, the Salyut-3 flight continued for
> seven months, after which the station was brought down on January 24, 1975.
> On December 26, 1974, the Salyut-4 (DOS-4) was lifted into orbit, where
> it operated successfully for a long period of time, performing scientific
> and other tasks.
> The results of the flights of the Almaz and DOS stations, which carried
> out different missions but which were given in public the same name, Salyut,
> in case of their successful launch, provided specialists with invaluable
> experience and important scientific information.
> Another manned orbital station, Salyut-5, was launched on June 22, 1976,
> and operated until August 8, 1977. Three crews flew to visit it,
> specifically B.V. Volynov and V.M. Zholobov (joint flight from July 6 to
> August 24, 1976), V.D. Zudov and V.I. Rozhdestvensky (they failed to dock
> with the station), V.V. Gorbatko and Yu.N. Glazkov (joint flight between
> February 7 and 25, 1977).
> The RV carrying the research information aboard returned to the Earth on
> February 26, 1977, and the station was deorbited on August 8, 1977.
> The next, upgraded version of an orbital station, Salyut-6, had two types
> of docking units allowing for docking not only with the Soyuz and Progress
> spacecraft, but also with Transport Supply Spacecraft (TKS) that had already
> been made by the Khrunichev Plant and that were undergoing trials. The
> station was launched on September 29, 1977.
> The manufacture of the TKS, a 20-ton manned spacecraft composed of a
> functional cargo block (FGB) and a return vehicle (RV), required strenuous
> efforts from the plant and numerous basically new design, engineering and
> technological solutions for both the FGB and the RV. Unique testing
> facilities, built at the Khrunichev Plant and many other related
> organizations, made it possible to develop and test-run a unique spacecraft.
> The solutions found at the Salyut Design Bureau at the time were later
> widely used in developing the Mir space complex and the ISS.
> The first TKS, codenamed Kosmos-929, comprising the FGB and the RV, was
> put into orbit by the Proton LV under a development flight test program on
> July 17, 1977. The orbital flight continued for 30 days, after which, on
> August 17, the RV was separated and brought down on command from the Earth,
> whereas the FGB continued flying for another 211 days. During the flight,
> specialists checked the working efficiency of the spacecraft systems,
> carried out technical experiments, tested the RV and its return to the
> Earth, tested the FGB in unmanned flight, and carried out its controlled
> descent to the ocean in a designated area on February 3, 1978.
> The TKS testing enabled full-scale implementation of the Almaz project,
> the way it was conceived in the 1960s. However, the national leadership made
> a decision to give up this project in favor of the DOS program, thereby
> reorienting the already ready-made TKSs to work with the Salyut-6 and
> Salyut-7 stations.
> The second-generation long-duration orbital station, Salyut-6, was placed
> into orbit on September 29, 1977, and operated successfully for almost five
> years. On April 25, 1981, the TKS-2 (Kosmos-1267) was launched toward the
> station. After a test flight and separation of the RV for descent, the FGB
> of the TKS successfully docked with Salyut-6 on June 19, 1981, assumed
> control of the 40-ton orbital complex and a year later, on June 29, 1982,
> helped deorbit it.
> On December 19, 1981, during the joint flight of the Salyut-6 and
> Kosmos-1267 (TKS-2), a decision was made to terminate the Almaz program and
> continue TKS tests in accordance with the Salyut program.
> On April 19, 1982, the most advanced station of the DOS series, Salyut-7,
> was launched. On March 2, 1983, another TKS (Kosmos-1443) was lifted into
> Eight days later, it docked with the station and delivered around 4,000
> kg of payload, including 500 kg aboard the RV. Cosmonauts V.Ya. Lyakhov and
> A.A. Aleksandrov not only unloaded the TKS, but loaded into the RV
> containers with research materials, instruments and pieces of hardware that
> had worked in space for a long time.
> The joint flight of the TKS and the DOS-7 continued for more than 5
> months, during which the TKS (by means of the FGB) controlled the entire
> complex. The TKS undocked from Salyut-7 on August 14, 1983. After that, the
> spacecraft remained in free flight for 10 days. On August 23, the RV was
> separated from the FGB and brought down to the Earth, carrying 350 kg of
> scientific cargoes. On September 19, 1983, the FGB was sunk at the
> designated area on command from the Earth, whereas the station continued to
> Another TKS (Kosmos-1686) was ready for a rendezvous with the Salyut-7
> for more than just a supply mission. It was supposed to carry the Pion-K
> optoelectronic reconnaissance complex for surveillance over ground and
> sea-based facilities.
> However, on February 11, 1985, an error made by the Mission Control
> Center led to a loss of communication with the unmanned Salyut-7.
> As a result, the station's automatic systems failed, the recharging of
> the buffer batteries stopped, and the onboard systems deenergized and
> switched off. To rescue the station and the entire program, a special
> expedition including V.A. Dzhanibekov and V.P. Savinykh was sent to the
> Salyut-7 aboard the Soyuz T-13 spacecraft. On June 8, 1985, the spacecraft
> docked with the frozen Salyut-7, and within a month the cosmonauts did the
> impossible - they brought the station back to life and restored the
> performance of the systems.
> In the second half of September 1985, the crew was partially replaced. On
> September 17, V.V. Vasyutin, G.M. Grechko and A.A. Volkov arrived at the
> station aboard the Soyuz T-14, and on September 25 V.A. Dzhanibekov and G.M.
> Grechko returned to the Earth aboard the Soyuz T-13. V.V. Vasyutin, V.P.
> Savinykh and A.A. Volkov continued to work on the station.
> The next TKS, named Kosmos-1686, was placed into orbit by Proton LV on
> September 27, 1986, and docked with the Salyut-7 on October 2. It carried
> special equipment and expendable materials weighing more than 4,300 kg,
> including 1,255 kg of scientific equipment. Its tanks accommodated over 1.5
> tons of fuel needed to sustain the station in orbit, its orientation and
> stabilization. The TKS significantly improved the performance of the
> station's electric power system.
> However, an illness of flight commander V.V. Vasyutin forced the basic
> expedition to reduce their work aboard the station and return to the Earth
> ahead of schedule, on November 21.
> Still the Salyut-7 operation did not stop there. At the time, the Mir
> first manned orbital complex started to function in space. On May 6, 1986,
> cosmonauts L.D. Kizim and V.A. Solovyov transferred in the Soyuz T-15
> spacecraft from the Mir to the Salyut-7.
> They completed some of the previously planned experiments, performed
> spacewalks to work with the Mayak truss, mothballed the Salyut-7 and flew
> back to the Mir. That was the first operation of this kind ever carried out
> in space.
> Later it was decided to move the Salyut-7 - Kosmos-1686 complex to a
> different (storage) orbit, and on August 28, 1986, the propulsion unit of
> the TKS helped lift the complex to an altitude of 450 km.
> During the flight in the storage orbit, specialists conducted endurance
> tests of assemblies and systems and carried out scientific experiments. The
> control was exercised from the Mission Control Center near the city of
> Yevpatoria. The Center even considered a possibility of returning some of
> the complex elements to the Earth aboard the Buran spacecraft.
> However, in December 1989, the TKS power system failed, and in 1990 a
> peak in the solar activity led to a sharp slowdown of the station. That was
> why on February 7, 1991, there occurred an uncontrolled deorbiting of the
> Salyut-7 - Kosmos-1686 complex, and it ceased to exist.
> After the Almaz and Salyut manned programs were closed, the remaining
> frame structures of two Almaz stations were decided to be converted into
> unmanned spacecraft for radar surveillance of the Earth. The absence of
> systems required for a manned flight enabled specialists to place a large
> amount of equipment in a spacecraft, including unique radars.
> The first such spacecraft, Kosmos-1870, was launched by the Proton LV on
> July 25, 1987, and transmitted high-quality radar and panoramic imagery to
> the Earth for more than two years.
> The second spacecraft, Almaz-1, worked successfully from March 31, 1991,
> to October 17, 1992, transmitting images of 10 meter resolution.
> Thereupon the work on the development and operation of TKSs and their
> elements under the original programs was over. The principles of approaches,
> and the design, engineering, technological and other solutions found during
> that work were further implemented in the development of modules for the Mir
> orbital station and the ISS, as well as other spacecraft made by the
> Khrunichev and other space centers.
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