The Constitution of the United States



WE THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES, in order to form a more perfect 
Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide for 
the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the 
Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and 
establish this constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE. 1

Section 1. 	All legislative Powers herein granted shall be 
vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a 
Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2. 	The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several 
States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications 
requisite for the Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State 
Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to 
the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the 
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of 
that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several States which may be included within this Union, according to 
their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the 
whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a 
Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all 
other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three 
Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, 
and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as 
they shall by Law direct.  The Number of Representatives shall 
not exceed  one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have 
at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be 
made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, 
Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantation one, 
Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, 
Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South 
Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the 
Executive authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill 
such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other 
Officers; and shall have sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3.	The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six   
Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the 
first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into 
three Classes.  The Seats of the Senators in the first Class shall 
be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class 
at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third class at the 
Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third of may be chosen 
every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or 
otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the 
Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next 
Meeting of the legislature which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained the Age of 
thirty Years, and been Years a Citizen of the United States and who 
shall not, when elected, Be an Inhabitant of that State for which he 
shall be chose.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their Officers, and also a President pro-
tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall 
exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments.  When 
sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation.  
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice 
shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the 
Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to 
removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
Office of honor, Trust or Profit  under the United States: but the 
Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to 
Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law. 

Section 4.	The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for 
Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by 
the Legislature thereof, but the Congress may at any time by Law 
make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing 
Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such 
Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall 
by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns 
and qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall 
constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn 
from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of 
absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each 
House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its 
Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two 
thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment 
require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either 
House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those 
Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the 
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6.	The Senators and Representatives shall receive a 
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid 
out of the Treasury of the United States.  They shall in all  Cases, 
except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from 
Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respected 
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and from any 
Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in 
any other Place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the 
United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments 
whereof  shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person 
holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of 
either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7.   	All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in 
the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur 
with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the 
President  of the United States; if he approves he shall sign it, 
but if not he shall return it,, with his Objections to that House in 
which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at 
large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it.  If after such 
Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the 
Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other 
House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered by yeas and Nays 
and the Names of the Persons  voting for and against the Bill shall 
be entered on the Journal of each House respectively.  If any Bill 
shall not  be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays 
excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall 
be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress 
by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not 
be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the 
United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be 
approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by 
two thirds of the Senate and House or Representatives, according to 
the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Section 8. 	The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect 
Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for 
the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States; but all 
Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United 
States.
	To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
	To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the 
several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
	To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform 
Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
	To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign 
coin, and fox the Standards of Weights and Measured;
	To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;
	To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by 
securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive 
Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
	To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
	To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the 
high Seas, and Offenses against the Laws of Nations;
	To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make 
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
	To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to 
that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
	To provide and maintain a Navy;
	To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land 
and naval Forces;
	To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the 
Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in 
the Service of the United States, reserving to the States 
respectively, the Appointment of the Offices, and the Authority of 
training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by 
Congress;
	To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, 
over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by 
Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become 
the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise 
like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the 
Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the 
Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other 
needful Buildings;-And
	To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for 
carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers 
vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, 
or in any Department or Officer thereof. 

Section 9.	 The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of 
the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight 
hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such 
Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. 
	The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be 
suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public 
Safety may require it. 
	No Bill of Attainder or ex post Law shall be passed. 
	No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in 
Proportion to the census or Enumeration herein before directed to be 
taken.
	No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any 
State.
	No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or 
Revenue to the Ports of State over those of another: nor shall 
Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or 
pay Duties to another.
	No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence 
of Appropriations made by Law, and a regular Statement and Account 
of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be 
published from time to time.
	No title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: 
And no Person holding any Office of Profit or trust under them, 
shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, 
Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, 
Prince, or foreign State. 

Section 10.	No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliances or 
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; 
emit Bills of Credit; make and Thing but gold or silver Coin a 
Tender in Payment of Debts; pass an Bill of Attainer, ex post facto 
Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any 
Title of Nobility.
	
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts 
or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely 
necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of 
all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, 
shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all 
such Laws such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of 
the Congress. 

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of 
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in the time of Peace, enter 
into any Agreement or Compact with another State or with a foreign 
Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such 
imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE. II

Section 1.	The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the 
United states of America.  He shall hold his Office during the term 
of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the 
same Term, be elected, as follows
	Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature 
thereof may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole Number 
of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitles 
in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding 
an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be 
appointed an Elector. 

	The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote 
by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an 
Inhabitant of the same State with themselves.  And they shall make a 
List of all the Persons voted for, and the Number of Votes for each; 
which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate.  The President of the Senate shall, in the 
Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted.  The Person 
having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such 
Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and 
if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal 
Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a 
Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House 
shall in like Manner chuse the President.  But in chusing the 
President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation 
from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall 
consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the State, and a 
Majority all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.  In every 
Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the 
greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice 
President.  But if there should remain two or more who have equal 
Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice 
President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the 
Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the 
same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United 
States, at the time of Adoption of this Constitution, shall be 
eligible to the Office of President, neither shall any Person be 
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained the Age of 
thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the 
United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his 
Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties 
of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, 
and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, 
Resignation, or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, 
declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer 
shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed or a 
President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a 
Compensation, which shall neither be encreased or diminished during 
the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not 
receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United 
States, or any of them. 

Before he enters on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the 
following Oath or Affirmation:- "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) 
that I will faithfully execute the Office of the United States, and 
will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the 
Constitution of the United States."

Section 2.	The President shall be the Commander in Chief of the Army 
and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several 
States, when called into actual Service of the United States; he may 
require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of 
the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties 
of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant 
Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except 
in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators 
present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice 
and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors other public 
Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other 
Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein 
otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law but 
the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior 
Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the 
Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may 
happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions 
which shall expire at the end of their next Session.

Section 3.	He shall from time to time give the Congress Information 
of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such 
measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on 
extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and 
in the Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time 
of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think 
proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he 
shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall 
Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4. 	The President, Vice President and all civil 
Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on 
Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high 
Crimes and Misdemeanors.

ARTICLE III.

Section 1. 	The judicial Power of the United States, shall be 
vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the 
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.  The Judges, 
both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices 
during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their 
Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their 
Continuance in Office.

Section 2. 	The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in 
Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the 
United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under 
their Authority;-to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public 
Ministered and Consuls;-to all Cases of admiralty and maritime 
Jurisdiction;-to Controversies to which the United States shall be a 
Party;-to Controversies between two or more States;-between a State 
and a Citizen of another State;-between Citizens of different 
States;-between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under 
Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens 
thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all cases affection Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, and those in which a State may be Party, the supreme Court 
shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before 
mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both 
as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations 
as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by 
Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where said Crimes 
shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, 
the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by 
Law have directed.

Section 3.	Treason against the United States, shall consist only in 
levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving 
them Aid and Comfort.  No person shall be convicted of Treason 
unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt act, or 
on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, 
but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or 
Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attained

ARTICLE. IV.

Section 1.	Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the 
public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. 
And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which 
such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect 
thereof. 

Section 2.	The Citizens of each State shall be entitles to all 
Privileges and Immunities of the Citizens in the Several States.
   A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other 
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, 
shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which 
he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having 
Jurisdiction of the Crime.
   No person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or 
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but 
shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or 
Labour may be due.

Section 3. 	New States may be admitted by the Congress into 
this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the 
Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the 
consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as 
Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful 
Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property 
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution 
shall be so constructed as to Prejudice and Claims of the United 
State, or of any particular States.

Section 4.	The United States shall guarantee to every State in the 
Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of 
them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or the 
Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic 
Violence.

ARTICLE. V

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, in the 
Application of Legislation of two thirds of the several States shall 
call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, 
shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this 
Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of 
the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as 
the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the 
Congress; Providing that no Amendment which may be made prior to the 
first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; 
and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of it's 
equal Suffrage in the Senate.

ARTICLE. VI.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the 
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United 
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be 
made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under the Authority of the United States shall be the supreme 
Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound 
thereby, and Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the 
Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned bad the Members of 
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial 
Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall 
be bound by Oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but 
no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any 
Office or Public Trust under the United States.

ARTICLE. VII.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be 
sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the 
States so ratifying the Same.

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present 
the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one 
thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and the Independence of the 
United States of America the Twelfth.  In witness thereof We have 
hereunto subscribed our Names,

Go. Washington-Presidt	
	and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire (John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman)

Massachusetts (Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King)

Connecticut (Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman)

New York (Alexander Hamilton)

New Jersey (Wil: Livingston, David A Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona: 
Dayton)

Pennsylvania (B. Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, 
Thos. FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris)

Deleware (Geo: Read, Gunning Bedforn jun, John Dickinson, Richard 
Bassett, Jaco: Broom)

Maryland (James McHenry, Dan of St. Thos Jenifer, Dan Carroll)

Virginia (John Blair, James Madison, Jr.)

North Carolina (Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spraight, Hu WIlliamson)

South Carolina (J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles 
Pickney, Pierce Butler)

Georgia (Willian Few, Abr Baldwin)

Amendments to the Constitution


ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO, and Amendments of the Constitution of the 
United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the 
Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of 
the original Constitution.

ARTICLE I.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abriding the freedom of 
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to 
assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of 
grievances.

ARTICLE II.

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be 
infringed. 

ARTICLE III

No Soldier shall, in times of peace be quartered in any house, 
without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a 
manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, 
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, 
shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall be issue, but upon 
probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly 
describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be 
seized.

ARTICLE V.

No Person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise 
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand 
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or navel forces, or in the 
Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in 
jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal 
case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, 
liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private 
property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

ARTICLE VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and 
district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district 
shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of 
the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the 
witnesses in against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining 
witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for 
his defense.

ARTICLE VII.

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and 
no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court 
of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. 

ARTICLE VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

ARTICLE IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

ARTICLE X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States 
respectively, or to the people.

(The first ten amendments went into effect December 15, 1791.)

ARTICLE XI

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be constructed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against 
one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by 
Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. (January 8, 1798)

ARTICLE XII

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, 
shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they 
shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and 
in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice president, and they 
shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and 
of all voted for as Vice-President, and the number of for each, 
which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
seat of the government of the United States, directed to the 
President of the Senate;-The President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates and the votes shall then be counted;-The person having 
the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, 
if such number a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having 
the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted 
for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose 
immediately, by ballot, the President.  But in choosing the 
President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation 
from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall 
consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a 
majority of all states shall be necessary to a choice.  And if the 
House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the 
right of choose shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of 
March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as 
President, as in the case of death or other constitutional 
disability of the president.-  The person having the greatest number 
of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such 
number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and 
if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on 
the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President; a quorum for 
the purpose shall consist of two-thirds, of the whole number of 
Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a 
choice.  But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of 
President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United 
States.
(September 25, 1804)

ARTICLE XIII.

Section 1.	Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for a crime whereof he party have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their 
jurisdiction.

Section 2.	Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation.
(December 18, 1865)

ARTICLE XIV.

Section 1.	All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside.  No State shall make or 
enforce and law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of 
citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any 
person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; 
nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection 
of the laws.
Section 2.	Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole 
number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed.  But 
when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors 
for President and Vice President of the United States, 
Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of 
a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any 
of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of 
age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridge, 
except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the 
number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male 
citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3.	No person shall be a Senator or a Representative in 
Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any 
office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any 
State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of 
Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of 
any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any 
State, to support the Constitution of the United States shall have 
engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid 
or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of  
two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4.	The validity of public debt of the United States, 
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties for the services in suppressing insurrection or 
rebellion, shall not be questioned.  But neither the United States 
nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in 
aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States or any 
claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all debts, 
obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5.	The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by 
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
(July 28, 1868)

ARTICLE XV.

Section 1.	The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2.	The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation.
(March 30, 1870)

ARTICLE XVI.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the 
several States, and without regards to any census or enumeration.
(February 25, 1913)

ARTICLE XVII.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators 
from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and 
each Senator shall have one vote.  The electors in each State shall 
have qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous 
branch of the State legislature.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the 
Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of 
election to fill such vacancies; Provided, That the legislature of 
any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary 
appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the 
legislature may direct,

This amendment shall not be constructed as to affect the election or 
term of any senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the 
Constitution.
(may 31, 1913)

ARTICLE XVIII.

After one year from the ratification of this article, the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, 
the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the 
United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof 
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to 
enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified 
as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the 
several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years 
from the date of the submission thereof to the States by Congress.
(January 29, 1919)

ARTICLE XIX

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be 
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account 
of sex.

The Congress shall have power by appropriate legislation to enforce 
the provisions of this article.
(August 26, 1920)

ARTICLE XX

Section 1.	The terms of the President and Vice-President shall end 
at noon on the twentieth day of January, and the terms of Senators 
and Representatives at noon on the third day of January, of the 
years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not 
been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2.	The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, 
and such meeting shall begin at noon on the third day of January, 
unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3.	If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of 
the President, the President-elect shall have died, the Vice-
President-elect shall become President.  If a President shall not 
have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his 
term, or if the President-elect shall have failed to qualify, then 
the Vice-President-elect shall act as President until a President 
shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the 
case wherein neither a President-elect nor a Vice-President-elect 
shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or 
the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such 
person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice-President 
shall have qualified.

Section 4.	The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death 
of any persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a 
President whenever the right choice shall have devolved upon them, 
and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the 
Senate may choose a Vice-President whenever the right of choice 
shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5.	Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of 
October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6.	This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have 
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the 
legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission.
(February 6, 1933)

ARTICLE XXI

Section 1.	The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution 
of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2.	The transpiration or importation into any State, 
Territory or possession of the United States for delivery or use 
therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, 
is hereby prohibited. 

Section 3.	This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have 
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by convention in 
the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven 
years from the date of the submission thereof to the States by the 
Congress.
(December 5, 1933)

ARTICLE XXII

Section 1.	No person shall be elected to the office of the President 
more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, 
or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which 
some other person was elected President shall be elected to the 
office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not 
apply to any person holding the office of President when this 
Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any 
person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as 
President, during the term within which this Article becomes 
operative from holding the office of President or acting as 
President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2.	This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have 
been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the 
legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.
(February 27, 1951)

ARTICLE XXIII

Section 1.	The District constituting the seat of the government of 
the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may 
direct:
	A number of electors of President and Vice-President equal to 
the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to 
which the District could be entitled if it were a State, but in no 
even more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition 
to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for 
the purposes of the election of the President and Vice-President, to 
be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the 
District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article 
of amendment.

Section 2.	The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation.
(March 29, 1961)

ARTICLE XXIV

Section 1.	The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any 
primary or other election for President or Vice President, or for 
Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to 
pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2.	The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation.
(January 23, 1964)

ARTICLE XXV.

Section 1.	In case of the removal of the President from office or 
his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2.	Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of Vice 
President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall 
take office upon confirmation by a majority of both Houses of 
Congress.

Section 3.	Whenever the President transmits to the President pro 
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to 
discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he 
transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers 
and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting 
President.

Section 4.	Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the 
principle officers of the executive departments or of such body as 
Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore 
of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their 
written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the 
powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall 
immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting 
President. 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro 
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he 
shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice 
President and a majority of either the principal officers of the 
executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law 
provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of 
the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their 
written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the 
powers and the duties of his office.  Thereupon Congress shall 
decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that 
purpose if not in session.  If the Congress, within twenty-one days 
after receipt of the written declaration, or, if Congress is not in 
session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to 
assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the 
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office, the Vice-President shall continue to discharge the same as 
Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers 
and duties of his office. 
(February 10, 1967)

ARTICLE XXVI

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are 
eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2.	The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation. 
(June 30, 1971)