Subject: Re:News: Thailand calls for new solution to illegal immigrat
Date: Wed May 12 1999 - 13:11:27 EDT
The following declaration was adopted at the symposium on illegal immigration
held in Bangkok last month. It refers to the problem of trafficking several
times, but does not actually define the term.
Released on April 23, 1999
The Bangkok Declaration was adopted by the Ministers and representatives of 18 governments of East, Southeast and South Asia participating in the International Symposium on Migration "Towards Regional Cooperation on Irregular/Undocumented Migration" held in Bangkok on 21-23 April 1999. The Symposium was a joint initiative of the Royal Thai Government and the International Organization for Migration (IOM). It is the result of consultations that have been taking place among government representatives in the region since 1996. One initiative, which has come to be known as the "Manila Process", was initiated by IOM in Manila in 1996 and focused on issues concerning irregular migration and trafficking. A second initiative, started by UNHCR and IOM in 1997, is known as the Asia-Pacific Consultations on Refugees and Displaced Persons. The Symposium in Bangkok was the first in which participation was at the ministerial level, thus providing political importance to the discussion on migration and recognizing the necessity to tackle it from a regional perspective. The first day of the Symposium was for senior government officials. The second day was open to the public, with presentations from other regional experiences, such as Europe, North and Central America (the Puebla Process), South Africa and the CIS countries, and from international organizations, namely UNFPA, IOM, UNHCR, ILO and WHO. NGOs meeting at the People's Forum on Undocumented Migration in Asia also circulated a statement. The third day was the ministerial meeting, in which the Bangkok Declaration was adopted.
Following is the text of the Declaration.
Bangkok Declaration on Irregular Migration
We, the Ministers and representatives of the Governments of Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China,
Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lad DPR, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam, as well as the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (hereinafter referred to as "the participating countries and Region"), meeting at the invitation of the Royal Thai Government in Bangkok on 23 April 1999, on the occasion of the International Symposium on Migration, held on 21-23 April 1999, under the chairmanship of H.E. Bhichai Rattakul, Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand, to address the question of international migration, with particular attention to regional cooperation on irregular/undocumented migration: * Realizing that international migration is a complex phenomenon which is rooted in human history and is closely associated with social and economic aspirations of each country and region; * Recognizing that the process of globalization and liberalization, including the increasing interdependence of economies, has contributed to large flows of people in the Asia-Pacific region, thus providing both opportunity and challenge for governments in the region; * Noting that both the supply (push) factor and demand (pull) factor from concerned countries have led to the outflow of migrants from the countries of the region; * Being aware that international migration, particularly irregular migration, has increasingly become a major economic, social, humanitarian, political and security concern for a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region; * Noting with concern that the ongoing financial and economic crisis in many Asian countries has led to rising unemployment and other social problems, and has had differing impacts on irregular migrants and on the countries of origin, transit and destination; * Noting further that the periodical natural disasters in some Asian countries badly affect their economies and lead to rising unemployment and irregular migration; * Gravely concerned by the increasing activities of transnational organized criminal groups and others that profit from smuggling of and trafficking in human beings, especially women and children, without regard to dangerous and inhumane conditions and in flagrant violation of domestic laws and international standards; * Underlining that comprehensive, coherent and effective policies on irregular/undocumented migration have to be formulated within the context of a broader regional framework based on a spirit of partnership and common understanding; * Noting that over 65 percent of the world’s poorest people live in the Asia-Pacific region, hence poverty and differences in level of development among countries in the region remain important causes of irregular migration; * Noting that there is a number of international conventions and instruments dealing with humanitarian issues relating to migration; * Respecting the sovereign rights and legitimate interests of each country to safeguard its borders and to develop and implement its own migration/immigration laws, and also recognizing the obligation of the country of origin to accept its nationals back, and the obligation of the countries of transit and destination to provide protection and assistance where appropriate, in accordance with their national laws; * Recognizing the important role and contribution of regional consultative mechanism, such as the Asia Pacific Consultations on Refugee, Displaced Persons, and Migrants, and the Manila Process, on issues relating to irregular migration;
* Noting with appreciation the participation of countries from various regions, United Nations bodies and specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations, as well as non-governmental organization, in sharing their views and experiences in dealing with migration issues; * Noting with appreciation the participation of countries from various regions, United Nations bodies and specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, in sharing their views and experiences in dealing with migration issues; * Noting also with appreciation the discussion papers prepared by the Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, and the International Organization for Migration (IOM), which provided useful points of discussion and recommendations for the management of irregular migration; * Acknowledging with gratitude the timely initiative of H.E. Dr. Surin Pitsuwan, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand, the dynamic chairmanship of H.E. Bhichai Rattakul, Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand, as well as the excellent arrangements provided by the Royal Thai Government, with the valuable support of the IOM;
Declare as follows: * Migration, particularly irregular migration, should be addressed in a comprehensive and balanced manner, considering its causes, manifestations and effects, both positive and negative, in the countries of origin, transit and destination; * The orderly management of migration and addressing of irregular migration and trafficking will require the concerted efforts of countries concerned, whether bilaterally, regionally or otherwise, based on sound principles of equality, mutual understanding and respect; * Regular migration and irregular migration should not be considered in isolation from each other. In order to achieve the benefits of regular migration and reduce the costs of irregular migration, the capacity of countries to manage movement of people should be enhanced through information sharing and technical and financial assistance. In this context, UNITAR, UNFPA, and IOM, joint sponsors of the International Migration Policy and Law Course (IMPLC), are invited to hold, in the near future, a course for middle to senior government officials from the region; * A comprehensive analysis of the social, economic, political and security causes and consequences of irregular migration in the countries of origin, transit and destination should be further developed in order better to understand and manage migration; * As the causes of irregular migration are closely related to the issue of development, efforts should be made by the countries concerned to address all relevant factors, with a view to achieving sustained economic growth and sustainable development; * Countries of origin, a well as countries of transit and destination, are encouraged to reinforce their efforts to prevent and combat irregular migration by improving their domestic laws and measures, and by promoting educational and information activities for those purposes; * Donor countries, international organizations and NGOs are encouraged to continue assistance to developing countries, particularly the least-developed countries, in the region aimed at poverty reduction and social development as one means of reducing irregular migration; * The participating countries and region should be encouraged to pass legislation to criminalize smuggling of and trafficking in human beings, especially women and children, in all its forms and purposes, including as sources of cheap labor, and to cooperate as necessary in the prosecution and penalization of all offenders, especially international organized criminal groups; * The participating countries and Region should exchange information on migration legislation and procedures for analysis and review, with a view to increasing coordination to effectively combat migrant traffickers; * The countries of origin, transit and destination are encouraged to strengthen their channels of dialogue at appropriate levels, with a view to exchanging information and promoting cooperation for resolving the problem of illegal migration and trafficking in human beings; * Greater efforts should be made to raise awareness at all levels, including through public information campaigns and advocacy, of the adverse effects of migrant trafficking and related abuse, and of available assistance to victims; * Concerned countries, in accordance with their national laws and procedures, should enhance cooperation in ascertaining the identity of undocumented/illegal migrants who seemingly are their citizens, with a view to accelerating their readmission; * Timely return of those without right to enter and remain is an important strategy to reduce the attractiveness of trafficking. This can be achieved only through goodwill and full cooperation of countries concerned. Return should be performed in a humane and safe way; * Irregular migrants should be granted humanitarian treatment, including appropriate health and other services, while the cases of irregular migration are being handled, according to law. Any unfair treatment toward them should be avoided; * The participating countries and Region should each designate and strengthen a national focal point to serve as a mechanism for bilateral, regional and/or multilateral consultations and cooperation on questions of international migration; * A feasibility study should be conducted on the need to establish a regional migration arrangement, linked to existing international bodies, to provide technical assistance, capacity building and policy support as well as to serve as an information bank on migration issues for the countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The countries in the region are meanwhile encouraged to utilized and strengthen the already existing bilateral and multilateral arrangements; * The participating countries and Region will follow-up on the above mentioned issues of irregular migration at the political and senior official levels in ways which may be deemed appropriate; * This documents shall be given the widest publicity and dissemination possible to encourage governments, non-governmental organizations, the private sector and civil society to join in a collective regional effort to alleviate the adverse effects of irregular migration and to prevent and combat trafficking of human beings, especially, women and children.
23 April 1999
Editors: Graziano Battistella and Maruja Asis Researchers: Nenens Mayo and Jigger Latoza Citation: Asian Migration News, Special edition, 26 April 1999 Past Issues: http://www.scalabrini.org/~smc/amnews/amnarch.htm Grant from MISSIO Correspondence Scalabrini Migration Center PO Box 10541 Broadway Centrum 1113 Quezon City - Philippines Tel. (63-2) 724 3512 Fax: (63-2) 721 4296 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
____________________Reply Separator____________________ Subject: news: Thailand calls for new solution to illegal immigration Author: <email@example.com> Date: 4/23/99 9:53 AM
Does anybody know if this meeting addressed the issue of trafficking?
Thailand calls for new solution to illegal immigration problems Thai delegate asks for lenient approach The Bangkok Post, April 22, 1999
Thailand yesterday called on 18 countries of the Asian-Pacific region to work towards a "realistic and compassionate" solution to the problem of illegal migration in the region.
Deputy Foreign Minister Sukhumbhand Paribatra also called for "a sense of shared responsibilities".
He was opening the three-day International Symposium on Migration, which is being attended by delegates from the nine members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations-Brunei, Burma, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam-Cambodia, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea, China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.
"In good times, we can simply send migrants home whenever necessary, but in difficult times we cannot send them home or away at will because we are dealing with human beings and human tragedies," M.R. Sukhumbhand said.
He urged a concerted effort.
"We need to have a sense of shared responsibilities. We need to have a vision which reflects enlightened self-interest.
"We need to be both realistic and compassionate.
"The time has come to address the problem in a concrete and comprehensive manner through measures of regional and international cooperation," he said.
The director-general of the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), Brunson Mckinley, agreed. The severe economic downturn had complicated the situation, he added.
M.R. Sukhumbhand expressed hope the meeting would come up with concrete measures and that the views and information shared would be of practical value in regional cooperation and policy coordination.
Some delegates proposed the promotion of sustainable development in the source countries of illegal migrants as a solution. They also emphasised the need to recognise the sovereign rights and legitimate interests of each country to safeguard its borders and to enhance its own migration laws.
To prevent and minimise illegation migration and curb labour trafficking, Cambodia's delegate called on the international community to provide a financial grant or loan to set up a rural development bank that would extend loans to people set up businesses appropriate to their skills.
Laos said it would share the responsibility of irregular/undocumented migration flow with its neighbours and international organisations in the region.
To help prevent irregular migration, Laos and Thailand had established a joint committee for safeguarding border security and social order.
According to government statistics, there are only 1,261 legal Laotian workers in Thailand, while there are 79,057 from Burma and 10,593 from Cambodia.
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