Configuring Internet Client Applications

This step will help you configure the Internet client applications you have (or will obtain). I will list compatible applications and will provide instructions on how to make them work with Cyrillic text. Some applications work with KOI8 fonts directly, while others utilize Apple Standard Cyrillic fonts and convert to and from KOI8 internally - read the instructions in this Step for each individual application.

It is important to keep in mind that there are few applications out there which are able to handle Cyrillic text in the manner which I recommend here. Therefore, do not assume that any program will magically display Russian letters once you choose a Cyrillic font. Several applications are released with the same names for different platforms, such as NCSA Mosaic, which is available for UNIX, MS-DOS, and the Mac. If, for example, a UNIX version is able to support Russification, do not automatically assume that the Mac version will do the same. In fact, chances are it won't. Read an appropriate application section to find out which applications are Cyrillic-compatible.

MacTCP, TCP/IP Dial-up
Terminal E-Mail WWW Gopher USENET FTP Terminal




















A word about connection methods. If you're connected to the Internet by AppleTalk, Ethernet, etc., or using ARA or PPP/SLIP connections, you must be running MacTCP (a control panel; the most current version is 2.0.6, not available from Apple directly; MacTCP is bundled with System 7.5). In the table above, applications under the heading "MacTCP, TCP/IP" are for you. If you are limited to a dial-up connection only, "Dial-up" applications will have to be your choice.


NCSA Telnet

Terminal Emulation program.
Version 2.6 or higher is necessary; 2.5 will not work.
The latest version of NCSA Telnet is available from the NCSA FTP site.

Additional Information on NCSA Telnet


Terminal Emulation program.
Configuring version 1.2 or higher.

BetterTelnet has full Cyrillic support built-in!

The latest version is available for download from the SASSY software Web site.


E-Mail program.
Configuring version 1.5.1, 3.1.1 and higher.

Configuration using Apple Standard Cyrillic Fonts

Instructions below will allow you to configure Eudora to utilize Apple Standard Cyrillic fonts - high quality fonts available from Apple as part of their Russian System 7. Eudora will be able to convert incoming and outgoing text on the fly to and from KOI8 format. In other words, the text "outside" your computer is in KOI8 format, but "inside" it's in Apple Standard Cyrillic. Consult the Eudora and choice of fonts page for more information on the subject.

Configuration using a KOI8 Font

This method will allow you to use a KOI8 font in Eudora. It is similar to the way other applications described on this page are "Russified." Consult additional information page to learn about the limitations of this method. Configuring Eudora to use Apple Standard Cyrillic as described above is preferred.

The latest freeware version - Eudora Light 3.1.1 - is available at the Qualcomm FTP site. More information can be found at Eudora Web site.

Additional Information on Eudora and e-mail

Microsoft Outlook Express

E-mail client.
Configuring version 5 and higher

When writing a message to be sent, choose an appropriate keyboard layout and type in Russian - you should see the text displayed properly.

By default, Outlook Express is set to detect the text encoding in "Automatic" mode. Your outgoing message will be sent in CP-1251 (Windows) encoding. Should you wish to overwrite the setting (to mail specifically in, for example, KOI-8), go to Format->Character Set and choose an appropriate encoding from the list of popular options.

It also appears that the messages are encoded using "Quoted-printable" method, and I wasn't able to find a way to disable it (unlike Eudora, where it's easily disabled). That means that your message should be readable just fine on contemporary e-mail software. However, users of old-style UNIxadn VMS accounts with tools such as Pine will be out of luck with your messages.

The latest version of Microsoft Outlook Express is available at Microsoft WWW site.

Claris Emailer

E-mail client.
Configuring version 1.1v3.

Configuring version 2.0 and higher.

When writing a message to be sent, choose an appropriate keyboard layout and type in Russian - you should see the text displayed properly.

One problem exists with using Emailer for your Cyrillic communications (same applies to e-mail capabilities of Netscape Navigator and Communicator or Eudora if it is configured to work with a KOI8 font) - your recipients MUST use a MIME-compliant e-mail client - only then they'll be able to read your KOI8 text. If they are using some kind of a dial-up service and read their e-mail on-line from a mainframe, they'll see a bunch of symbols instead of Russian letters. Latin letters should be just fine, though.

The latest version of Claris Emailer is available at Claris WWW site.


World-Wide Web (WWW) browser.
Configuring version 1.0 Beta (v51) and higher.
The latest version of Safari is available from Apple.

Netscape Navigator

World-Wide Web (WWW) browser.

Go to version 1 or 2 or 3 or 4...

Configuring version 1.1N
Thanks to Sato Hideki,

Configuring version 2.0 and higher.

Additional Information on Netscape 2

Configuring version 3.0b2 and higher.

This newest version has Cyrillic support built-in!

Final Netscape Navigator 3.0 is out and the KOI8-R support is NOT there. There's still support for Apple Standard Cyrillic and Windows encodings. 8/17/96

Two patches became available to augment Netscape's 3.0 lost capability to process KOI8 text:

To display Russian or any other Cyrillic text you will need Apple Standard Cyrillic fonts. Make sure to get them first. Note: Unlike previous releases, you do not need KOI8 fonts.

The preferences settings should not require any changes, but if you're curious or if something is not working properly, check the following:

To read a page where Russian text is supposed to be, go under Options->Document Encoding and select the appropriate Cyrillic encoding. Majority of the sites with Russian text use KOI8, but Mac (Apple Standard Cyrillic), Windows (CP1251) and other choices Netscape has available might also be very useful.

Configuring version 4.0b5, 4.01 and higher.

Note: The new Netscape Navigator 4.01 (part of Communicator suite) sports full built-in Cyrillic support, including (thank you, Netscape!) KOI8-R.

I like to think that this recent return of built-in KOI8-R support is due, at least in part, to my humble efforts.

Here's a question I posed to people at Netscape: Why have 2 settings for Cyrillic fonts in Netscape Navigator - Cyrillic(KOI8-R) and Cyrillic(Mac)? This is where the problem is - the Cyrillic(Mac) works with Apple Standard Cyrillic fonts and also allows to view CP1251 and ISO-8859-5 pages by using built-in transliteration tables, while Cyrillic(KOI8-R) requires KOI8 fonts for KOI8 pages. So why not include the KOI8 transliteration table into the Cyrillic(Mac) "realm" of encodings and make everything simple and easy to use with only Apple Standard Cyrillic fonts?

It appears that my prayers have been answered.

To display Russian or any other Cyrillic text you will need only Apple Standard Cyrillic fonts. Make sure to get them first.

To read a page where Russian text is supposed to be, go under View->Encoding and select the Cyrillic encoding which is appropriate to the page you're reading (usually you will be told which encoding the page is using). Majority of the sites with Russian text use KOI8, so when in doubt, try it first. Other options your Navigator supports are ISO-8859-5, Mac (Apple Standard Cyrillic) and Win1251 (CP1251).

  use own fonts Some websites, especially those designed for Windows, specify a particular typeface for their text. Macs, unfortunately, don't usually have such fonts installed, which makes them unable to display the text properly. You need to go into Preferences, Appearance/Fonts panel and, as illustrated, in lower right corner choose "Use my fonts..." which lets you override the fonts selected by the website authors and use your own - the pages will become readable at that point. It's not a bad idea to change that preference back after you're done with a Russian site so that you still take advantage of websites designed with specific fonts but with a Mac in mind.

NOTE: If you need to display a page in an encoding which is not supported, you can use "User-Defined" and specify fonts appropriate for your particular encoding for transparent 8-bit "treatment" of text. For example, CP866 (MS-DOS Cyrillic or Alternative) encoding is not supported, but you can use ER series CP866 fonts for User-Defined encoding to see a page in CP866.

A patch by Andreas Prilop is available for Netscape 4 to enhance its handling of other Cyrillic as well as Baltic languages, but is not necessary for Russian.

Configuring version 4.0b3 and lower - just in case you can't get your hands on the most recent release.

PR1, PR2, and PR3 unfortunately suffer from the same KOI8 support omission as the previous releases... 2/22/97

To display Russian or any other Cyrillic text you will need Apple Standard Cyrillic as well as KOI8 fonts. Make sure to get them first.

The preferences settings should not require major changes if you had previous versions of Netscape installed.

  • Open Edit->Preferences... dialog box.
  • In "Category:" field, expand the "Appearance" by clicking on the triangle to the left and click on "Fonts" item.
  • In the area "Fonts" field, " use the "For the Encoding:" pop-up menu to select "Cyrillic (Mac)"
  • Select Apple Standard Cyrillic fonts in both "Variable Width Font" and "Fixed Width Font" pop-up menus.
  • Now, select "Cyrillic (KOI8-R)" under the "For the Encoding:" pop-up menu.
  • Select KOI8 fonts in both "Variable Width Font" and "Fixed Width Font" pop-up menus.
  • Click "OK" to close the dialog box.

If you would like to test the configuration of your Netcsape Navigator, go to Cyrillic Encoding Testing page.

Note: There are also e-mail capabilities built into version 2 and higher. I tried Netscape's mail (version 3) and everything seems to work: First, I went to Netscape Mail window, and under Options menu in Document encoding I chose Cyrillic (KOI8). Then, from my Eudora, I sent a test message in KOI8 and picked it up with Netscape - it looked fine. Then, I clicked on "To: Mail" button in Netscape to create a new message, changed the Keyboard layout to KOI8 and typed - text appeared in Russian without any problems. I sent this message and picked it up with Eudora, and it again looked just fine. Please note that this method suffers from the same limitations as discussed in Eudora Additional Information Page as well as in Claris Emailer section above and I must say that I personally prefer Eudora configured with Apple Standard Cyrillic to handle my e-mail.

The latest version of Netscape Navigator is available from the Netscape Communications WWW server.


"Set of OpenDoc components that provides one-click access to Internet services." Quoted from Cyberdog General FAQ.

Note: Cyberdog is a complete collection of Internet clients, including e-mail, gopher, FTP, telnet, news and so on. The instructions below are based solely on testing the Web browser. Feel free to explore other possibilities!

Configuring version 1.0 and higher.

The latest version of Cyberdog is available at the Cyberdog WWW site.

Internet Explorer

Microsoft's World-Wide Web browser.

Configuring version 3.0b1 and higher.

Additional Information on Internet Explorer 3

Configuring version 4.0 preview 1 and higher.

The latest version of Internet Explorer is available at the Microsoft WWW site.


World-Wide Web (WWW) browser.
Configuring version 1.00alpha3.2 and higher.
  • In File->Preferences->Format->Character translation should be set to "None."
  • Go to Edit->Styles dialog box. Choose a KOI8 font from the list of available fonts.
  • In the same dialog box, click and hold the top pop-up menu named "Element:" Select Stylistic, follow the hierarchical menu to item Plaintext and release the mouse button. Choose a KOI8 font from the list of available fonts again.
The latest version of MacWeb is available at the EINet Galaxy WWW site.

NCSA Mosaic

WWW Browser.

  • The development of NCSA Mosaic has been discontinued. Versions 2.0.1 and 3.0 beta 4, available for downloading, DO NOT support Russification.

The latest version of NCSA Mosaic is available from the NCSA WWW site.

America Online

Commercial Information Provider Access Software.

  • America Online version 3.0.1 DOES NOT support Russification despite the ability to change font preferences. However, this version introduces a new feature, described as TCP/IP "tunnelling" which allows you to run any TCP/IP application (Netscape, Eudora) while connected to AOL.

For more information, go to America Online WWW site.


Internet Gopher client.
Configuring version 2.0b8 and higher.
  • In Gopher->Preferences...->Other Preferences->Character Set Filers choose "None."
  • In Edit->Format... choose a KOI8 font.
The latest version of TurboGopher is available from the University of Minnesota Gopher server.

Yet Another NewsWatcher

USENET News Reader.
Configuring version 2.3.x and later.
  • If you haven't used the NewsWatcher before, launch it, set all the necessary preferences for your USENET server and so on and then quit the program.
  • In the NewsWatcher folder you'll notice a folder "Tables" and inside it two files: "Cyrillic KOI-8" and "Cyrillic Windows." Those two files should be moved to a folder you'll find inside your Preferences folder inside the System folder, it's called "YA-NewsWatcher Tables."
  • Launch the NewsWatcher again.
  • Go to Edit -> Preferences... -> Screen Fonts and set both "Group and Subject Lists" and "Article and Message Windows" to an Apple Standard Cyrillic font (Notice, NOT a KOI8 font!).
  • Choose a newsgroup or interest where you expect to read text in Russian and select it. Now go to Edit -> Newsgroup Settings... -> Article Options. Set "Article Text Conversion" to "MacCyrillic <- ISO-IR 111."
  • You should be all set. Repeat the above step for all the newsgroups of interest.
  • FYI:If you would rather work with KOI-8 fonts, it's still possible to choose "Text Conversion: None" under Edit -> Newsgroup Settings... -> Article Options.

Additional Information on YA-NewsWatcher

  • A new set of transliteration tables for reading and writeing messages in Baltic, Central European (CE), Celtic, Cyrillic, Esperanto, Greek, Romanian, Turkish are available - find out more on Andreas Prilop page.

The latest version of YA-NewsWatcher is available from Info-Mac HyperArchive.


USENET News Reader.
Configuring version 2.0.1 and higher.
  • In Prefs->News Server..., set "Character Set (receive)" pop-up menu to "Transparent." This setting should work for reading Russian. To be able to post in Russian, you probably have to set "Character Set (transmit)" to "Transparent" too.
  • Choose a KOI8 font in Prefs->Font hierarchical menu when you have an article and/or a group summary opened.
The latest version of Nuntius is available at this FTP site.


USENET News Reader.
Configuring version 1.0.6b1 and higher.
Instructions submitted by Dmitri Kuznetsov,
  • Choose "Macintosh 8-bit" character set from the "Edit->Preferences->Miscellaneous" menu.
  • Choose a KOI8 font from "Reading->Set reading fonts" menu.
The latest version of InterNews is available at the Dartmouth FTP site.


File Transfter Protocol (FTP) client.
Configuring version 3.0.3 and higher.
  • Go to Customize->Preferences...
  • Pick "Misc" tab
  • Make sure "Translate ISO characters" checkbox is unchecked
The latest version of Fetch is available at this FTP site.


An Internet connection that allows only terminal emulation is discussed here. That means that you have an account on a remote host computer and use your Macintosh communication program to connect to that computer via modem. The trick with getting Russian KOI8 text to display properly involves finding a program that is 1) able to change terminal fonts and 2) is able to send/receive 8-bit characters without any translation or stripping of the 8th bit. There are very few shareware and/or freeware communication applications that fit those criteria. The problem is further complicated if you wish to be able to write in Russian. That requires running a special program on your host computer (UNIX, VAX/VMS, etc.) along with what was listed above. Currently, it doesn't seem possible to accomplish this due to the absence of programs of this type.

Additional Information on Dial-up applications


Dialup Communication program.
PREFERRED (in my humble opinion)
Version 1.0b2 and higher is necessary; 0.9 will not work.
  • In Settings->Connection dialog box set Data Bits pop-up menu to 8 bits.
  • In Settings->Terminal choose your KOI8 font in Font pop-up menu.
The latest version of ZTerm is available from the Info-Mac WWW mirror site at MIT.


Dialup Communication program.
  • In Settings->Communications dialog box set Parity/Bits to "None/8."
  • In Settings->Terminal dialog box check "Accept 8 bit Characters" checkbox.
  • In Settings->Character Set dialog box check radio-button next to ISO Latin 1 (Western) in G1 (8bit characters) column.
  • Choose your KOI8 font in the Font menu.
The latest version of Kermit is available from the Info-Mac WWW mirror site at MIT.

Congratulations! You are finished Russifying your Macintosh.

Back to Step 3 | Step 4 | Return to Main Page

Navigational Aid