The A-4b was a winged V-2. This resurrected work on the A-9, abandoned in 1943 to concentrate on V-2 production. The A9 was to be the second stage of an ICBM designed to reach North America. By this time in the war the intent was to extend the range of the V-2 once Allied forces pushed the German lines so far back that Britain could no longer be targeted. References: 17 .
Launched 12:18 local time. Reached 104.8 km. Carried cosmic and soalr radiaiton, winds, photography experiments for Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University. The John Hopkins camera took motion pictures of the earth at over 100 km altitude (pictures covered 100,000 square km.)
Stripped down Thor long-range flight test successful from AMR, impacting 4400 km downrange.
The Redstone underwent static firing at White Sands Missile Range, the first time such a test had been conducted there.
First attempted launch of R-16 ICBM results in explosion on pad, killing nearly 100 military, engineers, and technicians, including Strategic Rocket Forces Marshal Nedelin. References: 89 .
Titan ICBM fired 6,100 miles / 9800 km, 100 miles longer than any previous shot, with tactical-type nose cone. References: 17 .
Studies of "unconventional" rockets using liquid fuels in the thrust range from 2 to 24 million pounds announced by NASA; 2 contracts being carried out by Aerojet-General and Rocketdyne Division of North American Aviation. References: 18 , 27 .
Faced by opposition of mode selection by Jerome Wiesner, Kennedy's science adviser, NASA let contracts to McDonnell and STL for direct two-man flight modes. Both concluded that it was feasible but would require LH2/LOX stages for descent and ascent from lunar surface, which NASA/STG adamantly opposed. This was also the last stab - for the time being - at 'lunar Gemini'.
The Office of Systems under NASA's Office of Manned Space Flight completed a manned lunar landing mode comparison embodying the most recent studies by contractors and NASA Centers. The report was the outgrowth of the decision announced by NASA on July 11 to continue studies on lunar landing modes while basing planning and procurement primarily on the lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) technique. Additional Details: Final manned lunar landing mode report. References: 16 .
Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. The spacecraft broke into many pieces, some of which apparently remained in Earth orbit for a few days. This occurred during the Cuban missile crisis and was picked up by U.S. military radar installations, who originally feared it might by the start of a Soviet nuclear attack. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 64 , 65 , 118 , 296 .
The NASA-Industry Apollo Executives Group, composed of top managers in OMSF and executives of the major Apollo contractors, met for the first time. The group met with George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, for status briefings and problem discussions. In this manner, NASA sought to make executives personally aware of major problems in the program. References: 16 .
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On establishment of the Kristall communications system based on Molniya-2 satellites' was issued. Kristall would be used for strategic communications. References: 474 .
Howard D. Burns, Chief of the Saturn V Test Management Office at MSFC, sent to Apollo launch operations officials at KSC a list of requirements for retesting the Saturn V following a lightning strike on the vehicle while on the pad. Additional Details: Retesting Saturn V following a lightning strike. References: 16 .
Decay date suspect Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Ionospheric, magnetospheric studies. The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Intercosmos 18. It forms a part of the scientific programme of Intercosmos 18, launched from USSR territory on 24 Oct 1978. MAGION was separated into an autonomous orbit on 14 Nov 1978. General function: Reasearch of the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth (magnetosphere-ionosphere satellite). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Conduct of complex investigations on the interaction between the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. Launched under the Intercosmos programme by the USSR in cooperation with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the H ungarian People's Republic, the Polish People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania. On 14 Nov 1978, Magion, a small Czechoslovak scientific satellite, separated from object 1296. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 116 .
First successful launch of new Meteor-3 spacecraft. Further improvement of the meteorological system using artificial earth satellite, including development of informational and measurement apparatus and remote sensing methods. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 115 .
Following separation of the third stage and the primary Deep Space 1 payload, the Delta second stage manoeuvred from its 185 km parking orbit to a 174 km x 2744 km x 28.5 degree orbit. It then released the SEDSAT micro-satellite, built by the Huntsville, Alabama chapter of SEDS (the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space). SEDSAT has two amateur radio transponders and an earth imaging camera.
The primary mission of Deep Space 1 probe was to test new technology for future interplanetary spacecraft, the main experiment being an ion propulsion engine using xenon propellant. It had an initial mass of 486.3 kg, including 81.5 kg of Xenon and 31.1 kg of hydrazine propellants. Deep Space 1 successfully started its ion engine on November 24 after an initial attempt failed after four minutes on November 10. From its initial solar orbit of 0.99 AU x 1.32 AU x 0.4 degree, Deep Space 1 was to fly past the 3 km diameter asteroid 1992 KD at its perihelion of 1.33 AU. An additional 2001 flyby of Comet 19P/Borrelly was also planned, by which time Deep Space 1 was to have manoeuvred to an orbit of 1.12 x 1.42 AU. Additional Details: Deep Space 1. References: , 296 .