Series P section B was a series of tests by Goddard in development of a gas generator to run turbines. Through April 28 a series of eleven static tests (Pa-k) of a new gas generator was made near the shop. The best form developed ran steadily for 10 sec at 180 psi for 250-psi tank pressures, with the rate of flow of oxygen at 0.49 lb/sec. References: 482 .
Cosmic radiation, magnetic field research. Launched at 1514 GMT. Reached 6 km.
First successful ramjet research model flown at Wallops Island by NACA Langely's PARD. References: 17 .
Myasishchev was tasked with building an intercontinental jet-powered bomber, something veteran aircraft designer Tupolev said was impossible. Myasishchev managed to complete the first prototype 103M (called M-4 Bear in the West) bomber ten months after go-ahead. Myasishchev would later play a key role in Soviet spaceplane development.
State Committee for Defence Technology (GKOT) Decree 'On the Creation of the Burya Winged Missile--course of work on 40 Burya' was issued. References: 474 .
NASA announced that Wallops Station had made over 3,300 rocket firings since 1945. References: 17 .
After analyzing launch vehicle behavior in the Mercury-Redstone 1A (MR-1A) and Mercury-Redstone 2 (MR-2), officials at the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Space Task Group were of the opinion that there were a number of problems that needed to be corrected prior to the advent of manned flight. The problems to be resolved included jet-vane vibration, instrumentation compartment vibration, failure of the thrust-controller system, and several other areas that needed attention. Many of these problems were studied by the personnel of engineering activities and proposed solutions were formulated. It was felt, however, that flight was necessary to verify the corrections and the Mercury-Redstone Booster Development test was scheduled and flown. All test objectives were met; as a result of this test, the launch vehicle was man-rated for the planned suborbital flights. References: 483 .
After booster problems on the Mercury MR-2 chimp test flight, Von Braun insisted on a further unmanned booster test flight, against the wishes of Shepard and others at NASA. A Mercury boilerplate capsule was launched on a flawless test on 24 March. If NASA had overruled Von Braun, the manned Freedom 7 capsule would have flown instead. Shepard would have been the first man in space (though not in orbit), beating Gagarin's flight by three weeks. References: 5 , 26 , 33 , 59 , 60 .
Suborbital test of Redstone modifications using a boilerplate Mercury capsule. The test was done at von Braun's insistence against Shepard's wishes, thereby putting the first US manned flight after Gagarin's. References: 5 , 26 , 59 .
Suborbital test of subscale model of X-20 Dynasoar. Aero-thermodynamic structural test vehicle (ASV) for heat shield tests. Good first stage burn, but the second stage fired, then shut down, repeating the sequence several times. The spacecraft separated, and began to maneuver in a 60 degree bank to recover course, when the self-destruct package blew it apart. The debris impacted the Atlantic 800 km downrange near San Salvador Island. References: 5 , 126 .
The vehicle was turned off after its onboard fuel was depleted.
Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international coope ration scheme). Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Eglin AFB to KSC (1 hour, 33 minutes) References: 15 .
Replace Molniya 3-11. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international coope ration scheme). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Replaced Molniya 3-15. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Carried COSPAS transponder; replaced Cosmos 1226. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space; testing of systems for locating the position of ships and aircraft in difficulties (COSPAS-SARSAT system). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked on 25 Mar 1988 22:21:35 GMT. Undocked on 5 May 1988 01:36:03 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 5 May 1988 06:56:19 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.28 days. Total docked time 40.14 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
Manned seven crew. Carried ATLAS-1 experimental package. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV)-4, Getaway Special Experiment G-229, Space Tissue Loss (STL)-1, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lIl, Visual Function Tester (VFT)-lI, Cloud Logic To Opti-mize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-Il, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl). Additional Details: STS-45. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Final launch of an Atlas E booster from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 7 June 1961). References: 88 .
Developed by Matra Marconi Space/Toulouse for CNES, the satellite provided 10-m resolution images with a wide field of view. SPOT 4 also carried a wide field 'vegetation' imager and a laser communications experiment. Launch was by an Arianespace Ariane 40 rocket, the base Ariane 4 model with no strap-on boosters. The liquid hydrogen fuelled third stage of the Ariane 40 entered an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit together with SPOT 4.