Germans successfully launched the A-4b, a prototype of the A-9 second stage of the first ICBM (the A-10) designed to reach North America. Although a wingtip sheared off in flight, the A4b reached a peak altitude of nearly 80 km and a maximum speed of 3960 m/s before entering a stable glide and achieving a range of 750 km. This concluded work on the A4b/A9; the increasingly chaotic situation in Germany prevented further flight tests. References: 17 .
Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule. First successful test of SpK small film return capsule planned for Yantar. SpK capsule FEU-170-13 No. 1702 / 2L successfully recovered. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 69 .
Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international coope ration scheme). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Unmanned supply vessel to Salyut 6. Delivery of various cargoes to the Salyut-6 orbital station. Docked with Salyut 6 on 26 Jan 1981 15:56:00 GMT. Undocked on 19 Mar 1981 18:14:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 20 Mar 1981 16:59:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.02 days. Total docked time 52.10 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
Manned five crew. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Orbits of Earth: 48. Landed at: Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Landing Speed: 342 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 839.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,240.00 m. Payloads: Department of Defence classified payloads. Additional Details: STS-51-C. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 33 .
MUSES-A was renamed Hiten after launch. It developed of lunar swingby techniques for future missions and ejected a lunar orbiter. Launching organization ISAS. On 1990 Jan 25: Period 6.665 days, inclination 30.63 deg, 262.49 x 286182.72 km. On 1992 Feb 17: Period 4.53 days, inclination 38.90 deg, perilune 2289.67 km, apolune 49013.93 km. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Manned two crew. Mir Expedition EO-13. Transported to the Mir manned orbital station a crew of the thirteenth main expedition comprising the cosmonauts G M Manakov and A F Poleschuk.The Soyuz carried the APAS androgynous docking system instead of the usual probe system. Soyuz TM-16 landed at 06:42 GMT on July 22. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 51 .
Launched with Turksat 1. References: 5 .