Final launch of the A3. No parachute, early cut-off, missile lost in Baltic. After this the A3 was abandoned and the A5 was designed in its place to support A4 development. References: 394 .
Temperature, winds research. Launched at 1004 local time. Failure.
Temperature, winds research. Launched at 2106 local time. Reached 83.9 km.
Temperature, winds research. Launched at 1647 local time. Reached 104.6 km.
Twenty-four Wasp research and develoment chaff and parachute rockets, used to obtain wind soundings to 160,000 feet, were fired by Naval Ordnance Missile Test Facility at WSPG. References: 17 .
These were AVCO, Chance-Vought, Convair, Douglas, Grumman, Lockheed, Martin, McDonnell, North American, Northrop, and Republic. In addition, Winzen Research Laboratories submitted an incomplete proposal. References: 483 .
The first static firing of the Apollo tower jettison motor, under development by Thiokol Chemical Corporation, was successfully performed. References: 16 .
NASA Headquarters approved a $48,064,658 supplement to the Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc., contract for 10 additional S-IVB stages, four for the Saturn IB and six for the Saturn V missions. References: 16 .
MSC directed Grummann to provide a LEM abort guidance section (AGS) having
LaRC announced award of a 10-month contract to The Boeing Company to study the feasibility of designing and launching a manned orbital telescope and to investigate ways in which such an astronomical observatory might be operated, particularly the role that man might play in scientific observations. The study presumed that the telescope would be operated in conjunction with the proposed Manned Orbital Research Laboratory being investigated by Langley.
Explored lunar surface near LM and deployed ALSEP unmanned scientific station equipment. References: 66 .
Environmental research. Primary experiments included a temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for measuring day and night surface and cloudtop temperatures as well as the water vapor content of the upper atmosphere, electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) for mapping the microwave radiation from the earth's surface and atmosphere, infrared temperature profile radiometer (ITPR) for obtaining vertical profiles of temperature and moisture, Nimbus E microwave spectrometer (NEMS) for determining tropospheric temperature profiles, atmospheric water vapor abundances, and cloud liquid water contents, selective chopper radiometer (SCR) for observing the global temperature structure of the atmosphere, and a surface composition mapping radiometer (SCMR) for measuring the differences in the thermal emission characteristics of the earth's surface. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Study of low-frequency electromagnetic vibrations in the magnetosphere of the earth, of the structure of the ionosphere and of the intensity of micrometeorite fluxes. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 99 , 116 .
European TV broadcast; 19.2 deg W. Astra 1A provides TV coverage to Western Europe. The satellite is owned and operated by Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES), a private company formed in 1985. Astra 1A is based in the GE 4000 series platform, and was the first in a network of four satellites. Spacecraft: GE 4000 platform.3-axis stabilisation with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. Solar arrays provide 2800 W BOL, 3 50 Ahr NiH batteries. GEO insertion by Star 37XFP solid rocket motor. Payload: 16 Ku-band transponders (with six spares) . References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
EORSAT, second of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 143 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Still in operation as of December 1997. References: 4 , 69 .
The Mars Climate Orbiter was the second flight of the Mars Surveyor Program. The probe was to enter a 160 km x 38600 km polar orbit around Mars on September 23,1999, and use aerobraking to reach a 373 km x 437 km x 92.9 degree sun-synchronous mapping orbit by November 23 1999. While the Mars Orbit Insertion burn began as planned on September 23, 1999 at 08:50 GMT, no signal was received after the spacecraft went behind the planet. Subsequent investigation showed that the spacecraft had plunged deep into the Martian atmosphere, with its closest approach to Mars being 57 km. It was concluded that the spacecraft burnt up in the atmosphere. It was later found that cutbacks in tracking, combined with incorrect values in a look-up table imbedded deep in the spacecraft software (use of pounds force instead of newtons) were to blame. This failure led to a shake-up of NASA's 'faster, better, cheaper' approach to unmanned spaceflight. Additional Details: Mars Climate Orbiter.
Second attempted launch of Brazil's indigenous launcher.