NACA Langley's PARD launched its first rocket-propelled model of a complete airplane for performance evaluation (AF XF-91), at Wallops Island. This was followed by flight tests of models of practically all Air Force and Navy supersonic airplanes. References: 17 .
Composition research. Launched at 1811 local time. Reached 99.5 km.
The Air Force Ballistic Missile Division published the first development plan for an Air Force manned military space systems program. The objective was to "achieve an early capability to land a man on the moon and return him safely to earth." The program called for the start of a high priority effort (similar to that enjoyed by ballistic missiles), characterized by "concurrency" and single Air Force agency management. The complete program would be carried out in four phases: first, "Man-in-Space Soonest"; second, "Man-in-Space Sophisticated"; third, "Lunar Reconnaissance," exploring the moon by television camera and by a soft landing of an instrumented package on the moon's surface; and finally, "Manned Lunar Landing and Return," which would first test equipment by circumlunar flights returning to earth with instrumented capsules containing animals. Additional Details: US Air Force manned military space systems program. References: 16 .
First successful launching and erection in space of a 12-foot inflatable sphere for air density measurements, using a Nike-Cajun booster system, by NACA Langley's PARD at Wallops Island, Va. References: 17 .
President Kennedy signed legislation making the Vice President of the United States the presiding officer of the National Aeronautics and Space Council. References: 483 .
Mercury-Atlas 3 (MA-3) was launched from Cape Canaveral in an attempt to orbit the spacecraft with a 'mechanical astronaut' aboard. After lift-off, the launch vehicle failed to roll to a 70 degree heading and to pitch over into the proper trajectory. The abort-sensing system activated the escape rockets prior to the launch vehicle's destruction by the range safety officer after approximately 40 seconds of flight that had attained an altitude of 16,400 feet. The spacecraft then coasted up to 24,000 feet, deployed its parachutes, and landed in the Atlantic Ocean 2,000 yards north of the launch pad. The spacecraft was recovered and was found to have incurred only superficial damage; it was then shipped to McDonnell for refitting. References: 5 , 126 , 26 , 5 , 1269 , 278 .
Second suborbital test of Saturn I. The Saturn SA-2 first stage booster was launched successfully from Cape Canaveral. The rocket was blown up intentionally and on schedule about 2.5 minutes after liftoff at an altitude of 65 miles, dumping the water ballast from the dummy second and third stages into the upper atmosphere. The experiment, Project Highwater, produced a massive ice cloud and lightning-like effects. The eight clustered H-1 engines in the first stage produced 1.3 million pounds of thrust and the maximum speed attained by the booster was 3,750 miles per hour. Modifications to decrease the slight fuel sloshing encountered near the end of the previous flight test were successful. References: 5 , 16 .
Deep space retrieval of film cartridges from Service Module. References: 66 .
Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
Eight U.S. servicemen are killed and five are injured as helicopter and cargo plane collide in abortive desert raid to rescue American hostages in Teheran
TKS space station ferry. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 6 space station after the Almaz military station program was cancelled. Capsule recovered 24 May 1981. Docked with Salyut 6 on June 19 at 10:52 AM MT after 57 days autonomous flight. Deorbited and destroyed with Salyut July 29, 1982. Additional Details: Cosmos 1267. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 , 439 .
Inspected Kurs docking system antenna. References: 66 .
Manned seven crew. Carried German Spacelab-D2. Payloads: Spacelab D-2 with long module, unique support structure (USS), and Reaction Kinetics in Glass Melts (RKGM) getaway special, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II. Additional Details: STS-55. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Progress M1-2 docked with the rear Kvant port of Mir at 2128 GMT on April 27. Mir's orbit was raised on April 29 in the first of a series of three burns by Progress M1-2. It later undocked and was deorbited over the Pacific on 15 October.