This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at H2O2/Kerosene

Oxidiser: H2O2. Oxidiser Density: 1.44 g/cc. Oxidiser Freezing Point: -1.00 deg C. Oxidiser Boiling Point: 150.00 deg C.

Hydrogen peroxide is used as both an oxidiser and a monopropellant. Relatively high density and non-toxic, it was abandoned after early use in British rockets, but recently revived as a propellant for the Black Horse spaceplane. Hydrogen peroxide solutions are clear, astringent, colorless liquids which are slightly more viscous than water. They are described by Military Specification MIL-H-16005. High-strength hydrogen peroxide solutions are very reactive oxidising agents. Hydrogen peroxide is miscible in all proportions in water; it is soluble in a large number of organic liquids which are also soluble in water. However, many of these mixtures form explosive mixtures. Hydrogen peroxide-water solutions are normally insensitive to detonation by shock or impact. Surfaces that come in contact with hydrogen peroxide must be specially treated (passivated) before use, to prevent the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide-water solutions and their vapours are considered non-toxic, but are characterised by their ability to produce local irritation.

Hydrogen peroxide is manufactured commercially by several processes. Inorganic processes employ the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sulphuric acid or acidic ammonium bisulphate, followed by hydrolysis of the peroxydisulfate which is formed. For reasons of economy and flexibility of plant location, organic processing methods have become important in the production of hydrogen peroxide. These include (1) the autoxidation of hydroquinone or one of its homologues in a suitable solvent system and (2) the partial gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons.

Dilute aqueous hydrogen peroxide is concentrated to about 90 per cent by conventional distillation. Higher-strength solutions are prepared by fractional crystallisation of 90 per cent feed stock. Estimated United States production for 1959 was 50,000 tonnes based upon 100 per cent hydrogen peroxide. In large quantities, 95 per cent hydrogen peroxide then cost approximately $1.00 per kg. In small drum lots, 98 per cent solutions cost $ 2.00 per kg. Density varies: 2.44 g/cc for 100% H2O2, 2.43 for 98%, 2.42 for 96%, 2.33 for 75%.

Fuel: Kerosene. Fuel Density: 0.81 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -73.00 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 147.00 deg C.

In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. Rocket propellant RP-1 is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. Furthermore, in order to meet specification requirements of density, heat of combustion, and aromatic content, the kerosene must be obtained from crudes with a high naphthene content. RP-1 is an excellent solvent for many organic materials. The flash point is above 43 deg C. Above that temperature RP-1 will form explosive mixtures with air. The temperature range for explosive mixtures (rich limit) is 79 to 85 deg C. RP-1 is not so toxic as the JP series of fuels because of its lower aromatic content. In the United States, suitable kerosene fractions in 1960 were limited almost exclusively to the West Coast. The estimated 1956 United States production was 7700 tonnes, and the price was $0.05 per kg. By the 1980's it was typically $ 0.20 per kg. Russian formulations have typical densities of 0.82 to 0.85 g/cc, and even higher densities were achieved in the N1 and Soyuz 11A511U rockets by superchilling the fuel prior to loading.

Engines Using H2O2/Kerosene

Eng-engineslink Thrust(vac)-kgf Thrust(vac)-kN Isp-sec Isp (sea level)-sec Designed for Status
RD-161P 2,498 24.50 319   Upper Stages Developed 1993-
AR2-3 2,992   245      
RS-82 4,534   320      
JP-5/H2O2 6,456 63.00 335   First Stages Study, USAF, 1993
Gamma 2 6,958 68.20 265 251 Upper Stages Out of Production
BA-44 20,000 196.00 300   Upper Stages Development
Gamma 8 23,945 234.80 265 251 First Stages Out of Production
BA-810 367,000 3,600.00 282   Upper Stages Development
BA-3200 1,440,000 14,100.00 259   First Stages Development

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Last update 3 May 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .