This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at BrF5/UDMH

Oxidiser: BrF5. Oxidiser Density: 2.48 g/cc. Oxidiser Freezing Point: -63.00 deg C. Oxidiser Boiling Point: 41.00 deg C.

Bromine Pentafluoride was another of the extremely reactive and toxic oxidisers tested in the United States in the late 1950's. As in the other cases, it was found that the handling problems and safety risks outweighed the performance benefits. Commercial bromine pentafluoride is essentially pure BrF5. It is a pale yellow liquid and exhibits the pungent odour which is characteristic of halogen fluoride. Bromine pentafluoride is toxic and stable, and similar to chlorine trifluoride in reactivity and treated as such. It is prepared by the reaction of fluorine and bromine at temperatures above 200 deg C. The price of BrF5 in 1959 was estimated to be $10.00 per kg in hundred-kg lots.

Fuel: UDMH. Fuel Density: 0.79 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -57.00 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 63.00 deg C.

Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) is 98 to 99 per cent pure and is described by Military Specification MIL-D-25604. The normally expected impurities are dimethylamine and water. UDMH is a clear, hygroscopic liquid which yellows on exposure to air. It absorbs oxygen and carbon dioxide. UDMH is a toxic volatile liquid. It exhibits the sharp ammoniacal or fishy odour which is characteristic of organic amines. It is completely miscible with water, ethanol, and most petroleum fuels. It is not shock sensitive. The vapours are flammable in air over 2.5 to 95 per cent concentration range. UDMH can be produced commercially by nitrosation of dimethylamine, to N-nitro-sodimethylrtmine, followed by reduction of the intermediate to UDMH and subsequent purification. UDMH can be prepared, also, by a modification of the Raschig process (see discussion of hydrazine), in which the chloramine intermediate is with dimethylamine rather than with ammonia. The price in 1959 for tank-car quantities was under $ 1.00 per kg. Engineering studies indicated a price of $ 1.00 per kg with large scale sustained production. But due to its toxic nature, production and transport costs soared in response to environmental regulations. By the 1980's NASA was paying $ 24.00 per kg.

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Last update 3 May 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .