|Proton 8K82K - 8K82K with Almaz-K payload - COSPAR 1991-024|
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Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.
Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. During development, in comparison to the original polyblock design, the engine performances were improved by about 5 seconds; the mass of the first stage increased by 71 tonnes; the second stage by 30 tonnes; and the third stage by 27 tonnes (more than doubled). These changes brought the low earth orbit payload from 12,000 kg up to almost 20,000 kg. The UR-500K, although it exceeded the launch mass of the 11A511 Soyuz by 2.22 times and the fuel mass by 2.25 times, was more efficient with a useful load by 2.78 times greater. However putting the new variant of Proton into service proved difficult.
Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. However at the same time Khrushchev was ousted from power. Chelomei lost his chief patron and his projects came under negative scrutiny by the new leadership.
Although Korolev was opposed to the Proton, he now used it to his advantage. On 8 September 1965 Korolev presented several schemes for using Chelomeiís UR-500K to fly around the moon. One alternate was a two-part spaceship, using the Proton with the upper stage Block D from Korolevís N1-L3 lunar project. This would launch Korolevís 7K-L1 spacecraft (derived from the 7K-OK Soyuz spacecraft) onto a translunar trajectory. This project received the name UR-500K-L1, and was adopted in place of Chelomeiís LK-1. It required construction of 18 UR-500K rockets, which, in a combination flight-test and government trials program, would send L1 spacecraft around the moon, at first unmanned, then manned.
As a result of Korolevís seizure of the project, the first flights of the three stage Proton included Korolevís fourth Block D stage. Due to delays in the Almaz military space station, it was pre-empted by an OKB-1 civilian derivative, the Zarya. The first launch of the basic three-stage UR-500K vehicle, without the Block D upper stage, did not come until the launch of the Proton 4 physics satellite, almost two years after flights of the four-stage version had begun.
Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.
Launches: 31. Failures: 3. Success Rate: 90.32% pct. First Launch Date: 16 November 1968. Last Launch Date: 12 July 2000. LEO Payload: 19,760 kg. to: 186 km Orbit. at: 51.6 degrees. Liftoff Thrust: 902,100 kgf. Total Mass: 693,810 kg. Core Diameter: 4.2 m. Total Length: 50.0 m. Launch Price $: 50.00 million. in 1994 price dollars.
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 655-268 'On Work on the Exploration of the Moon and Mastery of Space--piloted LK-1 circumlunar and L3 lunar landing projects and the Ye-6M lunar lander' was issued.
Command number 655-268 was issued by Central Committee of Communist Party. Chelomei was to develop the LK-1 for the manned lunar flyby while Korolev was to develop the N1-L3 for the manned lunar landing. First launch of the N1 was to be by the first quarter 1966, with manned lunar landings in 1967 to 1968. Reprioritization led to work being stopped on Korolev's Zvezda 6 man orbiting weapons platform by mid-1965, after a huge mockup had been built. Chelomei as usual issued the advanced project for the LK-1 on the same day. The decree also ordered development of the three-stage version of his Proton UR-500 to boost the LK-1 around the moon.
The day before the overthrow of his patron, Chelomei obtained permission to begin development of a larger military space station, the Almaz. This 20 tonne station would take three cosmonauts to orbit in a single launch of his UR-500K Proton rocket. Therefore there were now two competing projects for the same mission - Almaz and Soyuz-R. First flight of the Almaz, with a one year operational period, was set for 1968.
|Proton 8K82K - Proton 8K82K launch vehicle in its original form, with Chelomei's manned LK-1 circumlunar spacecraft as the payload.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 6,794 bytes. 60 x 424 pixels.
Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On assignment of lunar programs to OKB-52 and OKB-1' was issued.
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On the Concentration of Forces of Industrial Design Organisations for the Creation of Rocket-Space Complex Means for Circling the Moon--work on the UR-500K-L1 program' was issued. As a result of a presentation to the Military Industrial Commission, Afanasyev backed Korolev in wresting control of the manned circumlunar project from Chelomei. The Chelomei LK-1 circumlunar spacecraft was cancelled. In its place, Korolev would use a derivative of the Soyuz 7K-OK, the 7K-L1, launched by Chelomeiís UR-500K, but with a Block D translunar injection stage from the N1. He envisioned launch of the unmanned 7K-L1 into low earth orbit, followed by launch and docking of a 7K-OK with the 7K-L1. The crew would then transfer to the L1, which would then be boosted toward the moon. This was the original reason for the development of the 7K-OK.
Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 'On work on the UR-500K-L1 program' was issued.
Leonov announces that cosmonauts are in training for lunar missions.
Decree 10 'On approving the work plan to build the p8loted spacecraft 7K-L1 -- approving the plan for for the UR-500K-L1 and terminating the UR-500K-LK-1' was issued.
In the period 1966 to 1968 there were five simultaneous Soviet manned space projects (Soyuz 7K-OK orbital; Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar; Soyuz VI military; L3 manned lunar landing; Almaz space station). Cosmonaut assignments were in constant flux, resulting in many claims in later years that 'I was being trained for the first moon flight'. Additional Details: Lunar flight cosmonauts assignments..
Fit tests at Tyuratam. Not launched (Interavia SD).
|UR-200 and UR-500 - Dynamic test models of UR-200 ICBM and early Proton concept 'collection of UR-200's'|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 27,338 bytes. 291 x 434 pixels.
NASA decides to conduct Apollo 8 on risky lunar orbital mission by end December 1968. Interestingly enough the CIA warning to NASA came within days of the L1 State Commission's meeting and decision to press for a November circumlunar flight.
Block D stage exploded on pad, killing three people. Booster and 7K-L1 spacecraft were still intact however.
First launch of the Proton three-stage variant. The satellite studied the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Scientific payload 12,500 kg; operated for 100 days in orbit.
Ten stations 'in advanced stage of completion' by end of year.
Brezhnev orders a cooperative crash program to build a civilian space station to beat Skylab into orbit. The civilian station (later named Salyut) will use the Almaz spaceframe fitted out with Soyuz functional equipment. Mishin's OIS military station was cancelled and Chelomei's Almaz would continue, but as second priority to the civilian station. The Soyuz 7K-S station ferry, the 7K-ST, would be revised to be a more conservative modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK. The OIS cosmonaut group was incorporated into the Almaz group.
Decree 437-160 'On creation of the TKS and termination of the 7K-TK' was issued. In 1969 Chelomei proposed replacement of the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK with his own transport-supply spacecraft 11F72 (transportnovo korablya snabzheniya - TKS). This would consist of the same 11F74 VA landing capsule used on the Almaz station, together with a new 11F77 functional-cargo block (funktsionalno-gruzovovo blok, FGB). This would transport three crew and sufficient supplies for 90 day operation of the Almaz.
Heavily instrumented suborbital flight to provide data to root out causes of continuing launch vehicle failures. Heavy mass model of an unspecified spacecraft used to simulate payload..
|Proton Launch Pad - Model of the Proton launch complex. This model shows the servicing structure enclosing the launch vehicle, already mounted above the flame pit. The pad is flanked by lightning and lighting towers. Bunkers for propellant storage lay along the rail line leading to the pad.|
Credit: Mark Wade. 50,927 bytes. 582 x 394 pixels.
Despite decision to cancel immediate manned circumlunar flights after Apollo 8, the remaining two L-1 spacecraft were kept in reserve for support of the L3 lunar landing program and possible later manned flights. They were never used.
First of manned space station; deorbited after 175 days in space, on October 16, 1971.
186km X 220km orbit to 253km X 276km orbit. Delta V: 35 m/s
198km X 204km orbit to 187km X 221km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
188km X 215km orbit to 208km X 217km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
208km X 212km orbit to 210km X 235km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
206km X 227km orbit to 225km X 262km orbit. Delta V: 15 m/s
225km X 262km orbit to 257km X 264km orbit. Delta V: 9 m/s
222km X 237km orbit to 238km X 284km orbit. Delta V: 17 m/s
200km X 237km orbit to 226km X 292km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
201km X 251km orbit to 248km X 299km orbit. Delta V: 27 m/s
248km X 229km orbit to 285km X 314km orbit. Delta V: 34 m/s
265km X 300km orbit to 221km X 266km orbit. Delta V: 21 m/s
177km X 182km orbit to 177km X 20km orbit. Delta V: 48 m/s
Total Delta V: 200/248 m/s.
Officially: Testing of design elements and on-board systems; conduct of research and experiments in space flight. Testing of design elements and on-board systems; conduct of research and experiments in space flight.
Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 'On schedule of work for the Almaz and TKS programs' was issued.
Brezhnev personally selects Almaz for next space station launch. Following two successive failures of DOS-7K station (Salyut 1 and 7-29-72 launch failure), Brezhnev personally selects Almaz for next launch (Salyut 2).
The first flight of the Almaz manned military space station. In January 1973 the first Almaz OPS was delivered to Baikonur. Launch and initial orbital checkout went according to plan. But before a crew could be launched the station depressurized. It was concluded that a short in electrical equipment started a fire in pressure vessel, leading to rupture of hull and depressurization. An alternate theory was that debris from an explosion of the third stage of Proton penetrated the hull. Control was lost on April 25, 1973, and the OPS cased operations on 29 April. Decayed May 28, 1973. Initial crew was to have been Popovich and Artyukhin.
Officially: Testing of improved design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments.
|Proton 8K82K - Proton 8K82K launch vehicle with Kristall space station payload|
Credit: Lockheed Martin. 27,434 bytes. 205 x 482 pixels.
Salyut failure. Unsuccessful mission. Salyut out of control. Decayed May 22, 1973. Was to have been manned by initial crew of Leonov and Kubasov. Last chance to upstage Skylab, launched three days later.
First successful Almaz military manned space station flight. Following the successful Soyuz 14 and unsuccessful Soyuz 15 missions, on 23 September 1974 the station ejected a film return capsule, which was successfully recovered. On 25 January 1975 it fired its manoeuvring engines for the last time and braked itself from orbit over the Pacific Ocean.
208km X 240km orbit to 213km X 253km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
213km X 252km orbit to 251km X 268km orbit. Delta V: 15 m/s
250km X 266km orbit to 265km X 271km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
266km X 267km orbit to 268km X 272km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
265km X 269km orbit to 265km X 273km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
261km X 266km orbit to 258km X 262km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
258km X 261km orbit to 258km X 286km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
235km X 259km orbit to 261km X 285km orbit. Delta V: 14 m/s
261km X 285km orbit to 255km X 294km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s
218km X 229km orbit to 0km X 218km orbit. Delta V: 68 m/s
Total Delta V: 51/119 m/s.
Officially: Futher testing of improved station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments in space flight. Futher testing of improved station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments in space flight.
Deorbited February 2, 1977.
211km X 250km orbit to 215km X 286km orbit. Delta V: 11 m/s
211km X 284km orbit to 276km X 344km orbit. Delta V: 35 m/s
277km X 342km orbit to 338km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
330km X 340km orbit to 337km X 350km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
337km X 349km orbit to 339km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
332km X 348km orbit to 348km X 355km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s
347km X 354km orbit to 343km X 351km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
335km X 344km orbit to 335km X 360km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
335km X 360km orbit to 342km X 361km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
330km X 351km orbit to 344km X 353km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
186km X 187km orbit to 90km X 186km orbit. Delta V: 28 m/s
Total Delta V: 87/115 m/s.
Officially: Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments in outer space. Further testing of station design, on-board systems and equipment; conduct of scientific and technical researc h and experiments in outer space.
|Proton UR-500K - Cutaway drawing of the Proton UR-500K with Block D upper stage as developed for the Soviet manned circumlunar program. The same basic launch vehicle would eventually be Russia's most commercially successful launch vehicle.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 7,679 bytes. 66 x 455 pixels.
The results of the Salyut 3 and 5 flights showed that manned reconnaissance was not worth the expense. There was minimal time to operate the equipment after the crew took the necessary time for maintenance of station housekeeping and environmental control systems. The experiments themselves showed good results and especially the value of reconnaissance of the same location in many different spectral bands and parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Additional Details: Salyut 5.
Double reentry test of TKS-VA capsule of TKS orbital shuttle. Spacecraft each weighed 9,090 kg. One was placed into a lower 189 X 213 km orbit, the other at the higher orbit indicated. After one orbit, both recovered at 44 deg N, 73 deg E, on December 15, 1976 3:00 GMT.
Test of TKS-VA capsule. Two satellites launched by a single rocket.
First test of TKS manned shuttle. Maneuvered extensively. TKS-VA capsule returned to earth August 16, 1977. Deorbited February 2, 1978.
214 km X 261 km orbit to 215 km X 279 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
207 km X 261 km orbit to 208 km X 264 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
208 km X 260 km orbit to 209 km X 267 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
192 km X 222 km orbit to 219 km X 232 km orbit. Delta V: 9 m/s
219 km X 232 km orbit to 303 km X 327 km orbit. Delta V: 51 m/s
303 km X 327 km orbit to 312 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
312 km X 319 km orbit to 314 km X 325 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
284 km X 294 km orbit to 290 km X 301 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s
288 km X 300 km orbit to 286 km X 305 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
285 km X 303 km orbit to 439 km X 447 km orbit. Delta V: 84 m/s
437 km X 448 km orbit to 335 km X 437 km orbit. Delta V: 31 m/s
335 km X 437 km orbit to 337 km X 438 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
337 km X 438 km orbit to 90 km X 337 km orbit. Delta V: 100 m/s
Total Delta V: 193/293 m/s
Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.
2 TKS-VA capsules atop Proton. These were the same capsules launched as Cosmos 881/882 on December 15, 1976. The plan was that both capsules would orbit and return, demonstrating the reusability of the TKS VA design. The launch escape system pulled the top capsule away from the exploding Proton rocket and it was successfully recovered. The lower capsule was lost with the booster.
|Proton K LV|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 1,749 bytes. 63 x 414 pixels.
Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.
Conduct of scientific and technical research and experiments; further testing of station design, on-board system and equipment. Soyuz 25 docking unsuccessful. EVA 20 Dec 1977 to examine forward docking port (no damage). EVA 29 July 1978 to retrieve externally mounted experiments (micrometeorites, biopolymers, radiation plates, materials tests). Soyuz 33 failure to dock due to propulsion failure April 1979. Soyuz 34 launched unmanned to provide replacement vehicle June 1979. EVA August 15 to dislodge 10 m diameter KRT-10 radio telescope from aft docking collar. Repair mission Soyuz T-3 December 1980 (temperature control hydraulics). Repair mission Soyuz T-4 March 1981 (stuck solar array). Salyut ejected a module on May 31 (perhaps retained Soyuz Orbital Module). Kosmos 1267 docks 19 June 1981. Commanded to reentry using Kosmos 1267 propulsion system over Pacific July 29 1982. Additional Details: Salyut 6.
Dual reentry test of two TKS-VA capsules. Recovered March 30, 1978 after one orbit.
Dual reentry test of two TKS-VA capsules. Recovered March 30, 1978 after one orbit. This test was four months behind the original schedule, due to the launch failure of August 4, 1978.
Dual test of TKS-VA manned capsule. Shutdown of the launch vehicle on the pad triggered the launch escape system, which pulled the top capsule away from the booster. The parachute system failed and the capsule crashed to the ground. The lower capsule remained in the rocket. The top capsule was to have been manned, but the inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure free launches of the Proton/TKS-VA combination made that impossible.
|Universal Rockets - Chelomei's Universal Rocket Family. From left to right: UR-200. Original UR-500 configuration, composed of clustered UR-200's. Conventional UR-500 monoblock configuration. Selected UR-500 polyblock configuration. UR-500 two-stage configuration as flown. UR-500K configuration with Block D upper stage.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 36,031 bytes. 630 x 351 pixels.
Dual test of TKS-VA manned capsule. One vehicle reentered and landed after two orbits, the other after one orbit. The top capsule was to have been manned, but the inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure free launches of the Proton/TKS-VA combination made that impossible. This launch successfully demonstrated the reusability of the TKS-VA capusle; the same pair had flown as Cosmos 997/998 on 30 March 1978.
TKS space station ferry. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 6 space station after the Almaz military station program was cancelled. Capsule recovered 24 May 1981. Docked with Salyut 6 on June 19 at 10:52 AM MT after 57 days autonomous flight. Deorbited and destroyed with Salyut July 29, 1982. Additional Details: Cosmos 1267.
Second Soviet replenishable long-duration Ďcivilianí space station. Objectives: Continuation of scientific research on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the Soviet national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Continuation of the scientific research in progress on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Although of the same design as Salyut 6, technical breakdowns throughout its life made Salyut 7 a much less productive station. Replaced finally by Mir. Two different TKS resupply craft, originally designed for the Almaz military station, docked with Salyut 7 to provide a larger complex. With the cancellation of Almaz, a large proportion of the experiments carried out on board had military objectives. As of January 1990 out of fuel, unable to manoeuvre, uncontrolled re-entry expected in three to four years. Re-entered in 1991 with 70 kg fuel remaining over Argentina. Controllers attempted to control impact point (set for Atlantic Ocean) by setting Salyut 7/Kosmos 1686 assembly into a tumble. This however failed and Salyut 7 re-entered February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Many fragments fell on the town of Capitan Bermudez, 25 km from Rosario and 400 km from Buenos Aires, Argentina. At 1 am local time the sky was lit up with hundreds of incandescent meteors travelling from Southwest to Northeast. At dawn the inhabitants discovered numerous metal fragments, which seemed to have fallen in distinct groups at various locations in the city. Luckily no one was hurt in the metallic shower. Additional Details: Salyut 7.
Deployed from Salyut 7 5/17/82. Launched from Salyut 7. Experiments in amateur radio communications. Launched into orbit from aboard the Salyut-7 orbital scientific station.
TKS manned ferry spacecraft from the cancelled Almaz OPS-4 mission. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 7 space station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 4 March 1983. Separated from Salyut 7 on 14 August. The VA re-entry capsule separated and the space station deorbited itself on September 19, 1983 at 0:28 GMT. The VA capsule continued in space for four more days, demonstrating autonomous flight, before successfully re-entering on 23 August 1983. Returned 350 kg of material from the station. Additional Details: Cosmos 1443.
Modification of cancelled TKS manned ferry; docked with Salyut 7. All landing systems were removed from the VA re-entry capsule and replaced with military optical sensor experiments (infrared telescope and Ozon spectrometer). Burned up in the atmosphere and together with the Salyut 7 station over Argentina on February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Re-entered with unused 3 m diameter recoverable capsule of 2-3,000 kg mass, solid rocket motors, and cesium sensors.
172 km X 302 km orbit to 284 km X 319 km orbit. Delta V: 36 m/s
281 km X 315 km orbit to 290 km X 336 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
290 km X 336 km orbit to 335 km X 352 km orbit. Delta V: 16 m/s
Maneuvers after docking with Salyut 7:
336 km X 353 km orbit to 338 km X 358 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
338 km X 358 km orbit to 358 km X 359 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
331 km X 333 km orbit to 333 km X 385 km orbit. Delta V: 14 m/s
333 km X 385 km orbit to 332 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
332 km X 468 km orbit to 466 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 37 m/s
466 km X 468 km orbit to 470 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
470 km X 475 km orbit to 475 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
Total Delta V: 143 m/s
Officially: Testing the equipment, assemblies and design components of a satellite in various modes of flight, including joint flight with the Salyut-7 station.
The core module of Russia's new space station was placed in an initial orbit of 172 x 301 km. It was established in its operational orbit on 6 March. It passed just 10 km from Salyut 7 on 8 March. First use of the geosynchronous Luch relay sattelite for communications with the station was on 29 March. Equipment launched with the core module included:
Total costs of Mir from February 1986 through return of Soyuz TM-9 in April 1989 were given as 1.471 billion rubles. This sum ncluded Mir, Kvant, all Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and 2 new modules. As of April 1989 50% of the scientific equipment was inoperable and the interior was cramped due to lack of extension modules. Electric power supply problems were first reported in April 1989 (batteries would not hold charge from panels). Mass 27,300 kg as of January 1990. Complex mass with Kvant-2 65,790 kg; with Kristall, Soyuz TM, and Progress M, 89,990 kg. Additional Details: Mir.
MIR module; high energy observatory. Docked with Mir. Rendezvous with Mir 5 April; soft dock 9 April; EVA on 11 April to remove fabric strip from docking apparatus and hard dock; jettisoned service module on 12 April at 22:18
168 km X 278 km orbit to 172 km X 300 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s
169 km X 296 km orbit to 172 km X 314 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
170 km X 313 km orbit to 297 km X 345 km orbit. Delta V: 46 m/s
298 km X 344 km orbit to 345 km X 364 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
Service Module only, after undocking with Mir:
345 km X 364 km orbit to 341 km X 363 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
340 km X 361 km orbit to 383 km X 406 km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
Total Delta V: 101 m/s
Officially: Extra-atmospheric astronomic research and resolution of a number of problems with scientific and economic applications.
First flight of Almaz radarsat taken out of mothballs after death of Ustinov. Returned images of 10 to 15 meter resolution through 29 July 1989. Remote sensing of the earth's surface, oceans and seas in the interests of various branches of science and the economy.
Mir expansion module. Scheduled docking 2 December delayed due to failure of solar panel to extend and failure of automatic rendezvous system. Faults corrected by ground control and docked with Mir December 6, 1989 at 12:21 GMT. Transferred to lateral port December 8.
Officially: Delivery to the Mir orbital station of additional equipment and apparatus for the purpose of expanding the research and experiments conducted in the interests of science and the national economy.
Mir module; materials processing laboratory. Docked with Mir. Kristall: Mass: 19,500 kg. Mass on docking 17,200 kg. Length: 11. 9 m or 13. 73 m?. Solar array span 36 m. Diameter: 4. 35 m. Payload: 7,000 kg. Two compartments. Instrument-Payload Compartment contains food containers, and industrial processing units Krater 3, Optizon 1, Zona 02, and Zona 03. 0. 8 m hatch leads to Junction-Docking compartment. This contains spherical universal docker with two APAS-89 androgynous docking units. These will be used to dock with Buran shuttle and 1,000 kg X-ray telescope to be delivered by Buran in 1991. Third opening houses earth observation cameras.
Launch originally planned for 30 March 1990. Delayed to April 18, then further delayed due to computer chip problems.
Launched 31 May 1990 12:33 GMT. Docking scheduled June 6 at 12:36 but delayed due to problem with one of Kristall's orientation engines. Docking successful 10 June at 12:47. On June 11 moved to side port. Work within module began 15 June.
Spektr: Late 1991 launch. Remote sensing work. Occupies port opposite Kvant 2. Before this occurs Kristall solar arrays will be relocated to Kvant.
Officially: Specialized module. Experimental-industrial production of semi-conducting materials; refinement of biologically active substances for the production of new medicinal preparations. Cultivation of crystals of different albumine compositions and hybridizatio n of cells. Conduct of astrophysical and technical experiments.
Radar imaging. Second flight of Almaz radarsats taken out of mothballs after death of Ustinov. Returned images of 10 to 15 meter resolution through 17 October 1992. Surveying of the territory of the Soviet Union and of other countries for purposes of geology, cartography, oceanology, ecology and agriculture, and study of the ice situation at high latitudes.
Deployed from MIR 6/17/91. Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. Launched with the Mir orbital station.
MIR experiment module. Docked to Mir Jun 1
Officially: Docked to Mir Jun 1
LEO. Remote sensing module for Mir space station Docked with Mir Apr 26.
This was the first launch in the assembly of the International Space Station. The Zarya FGB was funded by NASA and built by Khrunichev in Moscow under subcontract from Boeing for NASA. Its design from the TKS military station resupply spacecraft of the 1970ís and the later 77KS Mir modules. Zarya included a multiple docking adapter, a pressurised cabin section, and a propulsion/instrument section with a rear docking port. Initial orbit was 176 lm x 343 km x 51.6 degrees. By November 25 it had manoeuvred to a 383 km x 396 km x 51.7 degree orbit, awaiting the launch of Shuttle mission STS-88 which docked the Unity node to it.
Years behind schedule, the Zvezda living module of the International Space Station, built and financed by Russia, finally reached orbit. Zvezda's initial orbit was 179 x 332 km x 51.6 deg. On July 14 the orbit was raised to 288 x 357 km. ISS was then in a 365 x 372 km orbit. After matching orbits with the ISS, Zvezda then became the passive docking target for the Russian-built, US-financed Zarya module already attached to the station. The Zarya/Unity stack docked with the Zvezda module at 00:45 GMT on July 26, forming the basic core of the International Space Station. A flood of NASA missions would follow to bring the station into operation.