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astronautix.com Proton 8K82K

Proton 8K82K
Proton 8K82K - 8K82K with Almaz-K payload - COSPAR 1991-024

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Family: UR. Country: Russia. Status: Hardware. Other Designations: Proton 3. Library of Congress Designation: D-1. Department of Defence Designation: SL-13. Article Number: 8K82K. Manufacturer's Designation: UR-500K.

Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.

Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. During development, in comparison to the original polyblock design, the engine performances were improved by about 5 seconds; the mass of the first stage increased by 71 tonnes; the second stage by 30 tonnes; and the third stage by 27 tonnes (more than doubled). These changes brought the low earth orbit payload from 12,000 kg up to almost 20,000 kg. The UR-500K, although it exceeded the launch mass of the 11A511 Soyuz by 2.22 times and the fuel mass by 2.25 times, was more efficient with a useful load by 2.78 times greater. However putting the new variant of Proton into service proved difficult.

Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. However at the same time Khrushchev was ousted from power. Chelomei lost his chief patron and his projects came under negative scrutiny by the new leadership.

Although Korolev was opposed to the Proton, he now used it to his advantage. On 8 September 1965 Korolev presented several schemes for using Chelomeiís UR-500K to fly around the moon. One alternate was a two-part spaceship, using the Proton with the upper stage Block D from Korolevís N1-L3 lunar project. This would launch Korolevís 7K-L1 spacecraft (derived from the 7K-OK Soyuz spacecraft) onto a translunar trajectory. This project received the name UR-500K-L1, and was adopted in place of Chelomeiís LK-1. It required construction of 18 UR-500K rockets, which, in a combination flight-test and government trials program, would send L1 spacecraft around the moon, at first unmanned, then manned.

As a result of Korolevís seizure of the project, the first flights of the three stage Proton included Korolevís fourth Block D stage. Due to delays in the Almaz military space station, it was pre-empted by an OKB-1 civilian derivative, the Zarya. The first launch of the basic three-stage UR-500K vehicle, without the Block D upper stage, did not come until the launch of the Proton 4 physics satellite, almost two years after flights of the four-stage version had begun.

Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.


Specifications

Launches: 31. Failures: 3. Success Rate: 90.32% pct. First Launch Date: 16 November 1968. Last Launch Date: 12 July 2000. LEO Payload: 19,760 kg. to: 186 km Orbit. at: 51.6 degrees. Liftoff Thrust: 902,100 kgf. Total Mass: 693,810 kg. Core Diameter: 4.2 m. Total Length: 50.0 m. Launch Price $: 50.00 million. in 1994 price dollars.


Proton 8K82K Chronology


1964 Aug 1 -
1964 Aug 3 -
1964 Oct 12 -
1964 Oct 13 -
1964 Oct 28 -
1964 Nov 11 -
1965 Oct 25 -
1965 Nov 13 -
1966 Apr 10 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1966 Apr 27 -
1966 Sep 2 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
- 1967 January - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1967 Nov 17 -
1968 Jul 1 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1968 Jul 21 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K. Launch Site: Baikonur .
1968 Nov 16 - - 11:40 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 236-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1969 Dec 1 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1970 Feb 1 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1970 Jun 16 -
1970 Aug 8 - - 03:45 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 246-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1970 Oct 31 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1971 Apr 19 - - 01:40 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 254-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1972 Jun 15 -
1972 Jul 29 - - 03:20 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 260-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction at T+ 162 sec.
1972 Dec 31 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1973 Apr 3 - - 09:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 283-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1973 May 11 - - 00:20 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 284-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1974 Jun 25 - - 22:38 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 283-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1974 Dec 26 - - 04:15 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 284-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1976 Jun 22 - - 18:04 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 290-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1976 Dec 15 - - 01:30 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 289-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1977 Jul 17 - - 09:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 293-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1977 Aug 4 - - 22:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton-K s/n 293-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: Failure.
1977 Sep 29 -
1977 Sep 29 - - 06:50 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 295-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1978 Mar 30 - - 00:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 292-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1979 Apr 20 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 300-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: Engines ignited but immediately shut down on launch pad.
1979 Apr 20 - LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 300-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: Engines ignited but immediately shut down on launch pad.
1979 May 23 - - 23:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 300-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1981 Apr 25 - - 02:01 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 299-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200L.
1982 Apr 19 - - 19:45 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 306-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200P.
1983 Mar 2 - - 09:37 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 309-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200L.
1985 Sep 27 - - 08:41 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 331-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200L.
1986 Feb 20 - - 21:28 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 337-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200L.
1986 Nov 29 - - 08:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 338-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200P. FAILURE: Second stage explosion.
1987 Mar 31 - - 00:06 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 336-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200L.
1987 Jul 25 - - 09:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 347-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200P.
1989 Nov 26 - - 13:01 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 354-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200L.
1990 May 31 - - 10:33 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 360-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200L.
1991 Mar 31 - - 15:12 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 365-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200P.
1991 Jun 17 - - 21:50 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 337-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC200L.
1995 May 20 - - 03:33 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 378-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1996 Apr 23 - - 11:48 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 385-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1998 Nov 20 - - 06:40 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 395-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
2000 Jul 12 - - 04:56 GMT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.

Bibliography:



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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