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astronautix.com Proton 8K82K / 11S824

Proton 8K82K / 11S82
Proton 8K82K / 11S82 - Proton 8K82K / 11S824 - L1 Configuration

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Family: UR. Country: Russia. Status: Hardware. Other Designations: Proton / Block D. Library of Congress Designation: D-1e. Department of Defence Designation: SL-12. Article Number: 8K82K. Manufacturer's Designation: UR-500K.

This four stage version of the Proton was originally designed to send manned circumlunar spacecraft into translunar trajectory. Guidance to the Block D stage must be supplied by spacecraft. The design was proposed on 8 September 1965 by Korolev as an alternate to Chelomei's LK-1 circumlunar mission. It combined the Proton 8K82K booster for the LK-1 with the N1 lunar Block D stage to boost a stripped-down Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft around the moon. The Korolev design was selected, and first flight came on 10 March 1967. The crash lunar program lead to a poor launch record. Following a protracted ten year test period, the booster finally reached level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.

Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. However at the same time Khrushchev was ousted from power. Chelomei lost his chief patron and his projects came under negative scrutiny by the new leadership.

On 8 September 1965 Korolev presented an several schemes for using Chelomeiís UR-500 to fly around the moon. One alternate was a two-part spaceship, using the Proton with the upper stage Block D from Korolevís N1-L3 lunar project. This would launch Korolevís 7K-L1 spacecraft (derived from the 7K-OK Soyuz) onto a translunar trajectory. This project received the name UR-500K-L1, and was adopted in place of Chelomeiís LK-1 circumlunar project. It required construction of 18 UR-500K rockets, which, in a combination flight-test and government trials program, would send L1 spacecraft around the moon, at first unmanned, then manned.

By 4 October 1966 a dummy rocket was mounted at the launch site. The dummy was loaded with imitation propellants (kerosene as fuel and water/ethyl alcohol as oxidiser). The nitrogen tetroxide oxidiser had to be kept above -11 degrees C, and it was originally planned for a thermostatically-controlled electrical heating of the tank walls to achieve this. It was ultimately decided that the risk of explosion of such a system was too great, and the system was abandoned.

The first flight rocket (serial number 22701) began assembly on 21 November 1966, with mechanical assembly completed by 29 November. Electrical connections and tests were completed by 4 December 1966. Due to New Yearís holidays work did not resume until 28 January 1967. By 28 February the fully assembled booster / spacecraft unit was completed in the MIK, including the 7K-L1P boilerplate spacecraft. The launch tower was added on 2 March 1967 and the system was declared ready for launch. A serious potential problem during preparations was the discovery that fuel gases could lead to pump cavitation at the turbine exits. Tests on the ground showed that the problem was not the fuel itself, but in the monitoring equipment.

Although the first launch of the UR-500K-L1 on 10 March was successful, the record for the balance of the manned circumlunar project was dismal. Of the remaining 11 launches of the project, only that of Zond-7 was recognised as fully successful. In 60% of the failures the fault was in the launch vehicle; in 20% the Block D; and in 20% the spacecraft. Therefore the probability of successfully carrying out the objective of the project - safely flying a cosmonaut around the moon and returning him to earth - was only 9%.

Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles.


Specifications

Launches: 39. Failures: 16. Success Rate: 58.97% pct. First Launch Date: 10 March 1967. Last Launch Date: 16 October 1975. Payload: 5,390 kg. to a: translunar trajectory. Liftoff Thrust: 902,100 kgf. Total Mass: 707,170 kg. Core Diameter: 4.2 m. Total Length: 57.0 m. Launch Price $: 70.00 million. in 1994 price dollars.


Proton 8K82K / 11S824 Chronology


1965 Sep 8 -
1965 Oct 25 -
1966 Oct 4 -
1966 Nov 1 -
1966 Nov 21 -
1967 Feb 4 -
1967 Mar 10 - - 11:30 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 227-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: Stage 4 failed. Partial Failure.
1967 Apr 8 - - 09:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 228-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: Block D.
1967 Sep 27 - - 22:11 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 229-01 / 11S824 s/n 12L. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: First stage -1 RD-253 failed, resulting at T+67 sec in deviation from flight path.
1967 Nov 22 - - 19:07 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 230-01 / 11S824 s/n 13L. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: Second stage - 1 x RD-0210 failure, shutoff of stage 4 seconds after ignition. Launcher crashed downrange.
1968 Mar 2 - - 18:29 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 231-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1968 Apr 22 - - 23:01 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 232-01 / 11S824 s/n 15L. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: Second stage shut-off prematurely due to short-circuit in Zond control system.
1968 Sep 15 - - 21:42 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 234-01 / 11S824 s/n 17. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1968 Nov 10 - - 19:11 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 235-01 / 11S824 s/n 19. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1969 Jan 20 - - 04:14 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 237-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: Second stage - 1 x RD-0210 failure at T+510 sec resulting in flight path deviation, automatic shutoff of launch vehicle.
1969 Feb 19 - - 06:48 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D s/n 239-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: Failure.
1969 Mar 27 - - 10:40 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 240-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: T+51s payload shroud failed. Second stage continued but third stage failed to ignite.
1969 Apr 2 - - 10:33 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 233-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: First stage - 1 x RD-253 fire beginning at T+ 0.02 sec, rocket crashed near pad.
1969 Jun 14 - - 04:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D s/n 238-01. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: Failure.
1969 Jul 13 - - 02:54 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 242-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1969 Aug 8 - - 23:48 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 243-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1969 Sep 23 - - 14:07 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 244-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: Block D lost LOX due to valve defect.
1969 Oct 22 - - 14:09 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 241-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P. FAILURE: Block D control system failure.
1969 Nov 28 - - 09:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 245-01 / 11S824 s/n 25L. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: First stage malfunction.
1970 Feb 6 - - 04:16 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 247-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: Failure of vehicle on launch.
1970 Sep 12 - - 13:25 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 248-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1970 Oct 20 - - 19:55 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 250-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1970 Nov 10 - - 14:44 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 251-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1970 Dec 2 - - 17:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 252-01 / 11S824 s/n 26. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1971 May 10 - - 16:58 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 253-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: No Block D ignition due wrong timer setting.
1971 May 19 - - 16:22 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 255-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1971 May 28 - - 15:26 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 249-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1971 Sep 2 - - 13:40 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 256-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1971 Sep 28 - - 10:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 257-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1972 Feb 14 - - 03:27 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 258-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1973 Jan 8 - - 06:55 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 259-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1973 Jul 21 - - 19:30 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 261-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1973 Jul 25 - - 18:55 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 262-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1973 Aug 5 - - 17:45 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 281-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L.
1973 Aug 9 - - 17:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 281-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1974 May 29 - - 08:56 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 282-02 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1974 Oct 28 - - 14:30 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 285-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1975 Jun 8 - - 02:38 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 286-01 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1975 Jun 14 - - 03:00 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 285-02 / 11S824 . Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81P.
1975 Oct 16 - - 04:04 GMT. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D s/n 287-02. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Complex: LC81L. FAILURE: Failure.

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