This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at www.astronautix.com
Family: Winged. Country: Russia. Status: Study 1993.
Turbojet/ramjet-powered two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle. Mach 6 stage separation. The orbiter had a 2000 km cross-range capability with landing on airfields with runways of 3500 m length or more.
LEO Payload: 12,600 kg. to: 200 km Orbit. at: 51.0 degrees. Total Mass: 420,000 kg.
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Last update 12 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .