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astronautix.com Burya

Burya in shop
Burya in shop -

15,941 bytes. 282 x 160 pixels.



Family: Russian Ramjets. Country: Russia. Status: Hardware. Library of Congress Designation: La-X. Article Number: Object 350. Manufacturer's Designation: La-350.

A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Burya trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. Burya launches began in July 1957. The project was cancelled, but the team was allowed final tests in 1961 that demonstrated a 6,500 km range at Mach 3.2 with the 2,350 kg payload. In cancelling Burya the Russians gave up technology that Lavochkin planned to evolve into a manned shuttle-like recoverable launch vehicle.

A final government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles. Both missiles would use ramjet engines by Bondaryuk, astronavigation systems by R Chachikyan, inertial navigation systems by G Tolstoysov, and aerodynamics developed by TsAGI (Central Hydrodynamics Institute). Lavochkin's Burya would use rocket booster engines built by Glushko. Lavochkin’s missile was to deliver a nuclear warhead of 2,100 kg over an 8,500 km range.

The TsAGI configuration for the cruise stage was of conventional layout, with a thin profile 70 degree swept arrow wing mounted at mid-fuselage. The fuselage itself was cylindrical and area-ruled, with the classic ramjet shock cone in a nose intake. The astronavigation and guidance systems were mounted in a dorsal fairing. The star scanners of the system looked out through quartz windows.


Burya 160 pixelBurya 160 pixel

Credit: © Mark Wade. 1,899 bytes. 161 x 268 pixels.


The Lavochkin design used two rocket boosters derived from the R-11 'Scud' tactical missile. The Burya had a length of 19.9 m, a wingspan of 7.75 m, and a total design mass of 96 tonnes. The Lavochkin team was able to lead in the development, with preliminary design being completed in September 1955. By 1956 Myasishchev was just completing project design, while Lavochkin was already completing construction of the first missile. Then Lavochkin experienced a major setback in September 1956, when the payload requirement was increased from 2,100 to 2,350 kg.


Burya engineBurya engine - Burya engine guidance vanes

Credit: Lavochkin. 5,318 bytes. 106 x 116 pixels.


Burya was still launched first, in July 1957. The missile cleared the launch tower, then immediately arced over and crashed with a huge explosion within sight of the launch pad. But events now conspired against the project. The equivalent US Navaho was cancelled ten days later. Korolev's R-7 ICBM completed its first successful test flight in August. Myasishchev's Buran was being prepared for its first flight when that project was cancelled in November 1957. The Soviet leadership did not see any need for continued development of a parallel ramjet design.


Burya color 1Burya color 1

Credit: Lavochkin. 16,483 bytes. 287 x 202 pixels.


However development tests of the Burya continued. The first four tests worked out the vehicle dynamics up to the point of ignition of the cruise stage. By the 14th launch, on 2 December 1960, a 4000 km range was achieved. Later 6,500 km was achieved with cruise at Mach 3.2 with the 2,350 kg payload. Total missile mass as actually flown was 97,215 kg .

Then the axe fell on Burya as well. With development ICBM's going well, and improvements in surface-to-air missiles, the intercontinental ramjet looked expensive and vulnerable by comparison. The Burya cancellation was a hard blow to the Lavochkin team. In cancelling Burya the Russians gave up technology that Lavochkin planned to evolve into a manned shuttle-like recoverable launch vehicle.



Burya rolloutBurya rollout

Credit: Lavochkin. 8,953 bytes. 247 x 127 pixels.


Specifications

Liftoff Thrust: 137,250 kgf. Total Mass: 94,865 kg. Core Diameter: 2.2 m. Total Length: 22.0 m.


Burya Chronology



Burya CrashingBurya Crashing - Burya Crashing in First Launch

Credit: Lavochkin. 5,371 bytes. 280 x 154 pixels.


- 1949 October -
1949 Dec 7 -
1950 Jan 1 -
1950 Dec 4 -
- 1953 January -
- 1953 April -
1954 Mar 17 -
1954 May 20 -
- 1955 September -
- 1956 During the Year -
- 1956 September -
1957 Aug 1 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 2/1. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1957 Sep 1 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 2/1. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1957 Oct 30 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 2/3. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1958 Mar 21 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 2/2. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1958 Mar 24 -
1958 Apr 28 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 1-03. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1958 May 22 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 2-01. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1958 Jun 11 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 3/1. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1958 Jul 3 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 3/1. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1958 Jul 13 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 3/2. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1958 Sep 10 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 1-01. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1958 Dec 28 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 2-04. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1959 Feb 20 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 2-05. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1959 Mar 29 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 3-04. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1959 Apr 19 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 2-05. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1959 Oct 2 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 2/4. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1960 Feb 5 -
1960 Feb 20 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 10-02. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1960 Mar 6 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 10-04. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1960 Mar 23 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 10-03. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .
1960 Dec 16 - LV Configuration: Burya s/n 10-05. Launch Site: Kapustin Yar .

Bibliography:



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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