|Burya in shop - |
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A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Burya trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. Burya launches began in July 1957. The project was cancelled, but the team was allowed final tests in 1961 that demonstrated a 6,500 km range at Mach 3.2 with the 2,350 kg payload. In cancelling Burya the Russians gave up technology that Lavochkin planned to evolve into a manned shuttle-like recoverable launch vehicle.
A final government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles. Both missiles would use ramjet engines by Bondaryuk, astronavigation systems by R Chachikyan, inertial navigation systems by G Tolstoysov, and aerodynamics developed by TsAGI (Central Hydrodynamics Institute). Lavochkin's Burya would use rocket booster engines built by Glushko. Lavochkin’s missile was to deliver a nuclear warhead of 2,100 kg over an 8,500 km range.
The TsAGI configuration for the cruise stage was of conventional layout, with a thin profile 70 degree swept arrow wing mounted at mid-fuselage. The fuselage itself was cylindrical and area-ruled, with the classic ramjet shock cone in a nose intake. The astronavigation and guidance systems were mounted in a dorsal fairing. The star scanners of the system looked out through quartz windows.
|Burya 160 pixel|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 1,899 bytes. 161 x 268 pixels.
|Burya engine - Burya engine guidance vanes|
Credit: Lavochkin. 5,318 bytes. 106 x 116 pixels.
|Burya color 1|
Credit: Lavochkin. 16,483 bytes. 287 x 202 pixels.
Then the axe fell on Burya as well. With development ICBM's going well, and improvements in surface-to-air missiles, the intercontinental ramjet looked expensive and vulnerable by comparison. The Burya cancellation was a hard blow to the Lavochkin team. In cancelling Burya the Russians gave up technology that Lavochkin planned to evolve into a manned shuttle-like recoverable launch vehicle.
Credit: Lavochkin. 8,953 bytes. 247 x 127 pixels.
Liftoff Thrust: 137,250 kgf. Total Mass: 94,865 kg. Core Diameter: 2.2 m. Total Length: 22.0 m.
|Burya color 3|
Credit: Lavochkin. 9,091 bytes. 123 x 156 pixels.
|Burya Crashing - Burya Crashing in First Launch|
Credit: Lavochkin. 5,371 bytes. 280 x 154 pixels.
German aerodynamicist Albring designed the G-3 missile for the Russians. This would use a rocket-powered Groettrup-designed G-1 as the first stage. The cruise stage would have an aerodynamic layout like that of the Saenger-Bredt rocket-powered antipodal bomber of World War II. Cruising at 13 km altitude, the supersonic missile would carry a 3000 kg warhead to a range of 2900 km. This was an alternate approach to Ustinov's 3000 kg over 3000 km range missile requirement of April 1949. This design would be elaborated at Korolev's bureau into the EKR ramjet design of 1953.
|Burya 3 View|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 4,685 bytes. 301 x 459 pixels.
The NTS (Scientific-Technical Soviet) of NII-88 met in plenary session and subjected Korolev's proposal to withering criticism. The G-4 was found to be superior. After heated discussion, the Soviet approved further development of technology for the R-3, but not the missile itself. The decisions were: an R-3A technology demonstrator would be built and flown under Project N-1 (probably to prove G-4 concepts). Under Project N-2 both the RD-110 and D-2 engines would proceed into development test in order to prove Lox/Kerosene propellant technology. Packet rocket and lightweight structure research for use in an ICBM would continue under project N-3 / T-1. Winged intercontinental cruise missile studies would continue under project N-3 / T-2. Neither the G-4 or R-3 ended up in production, but the design concepts of the G-4 led directly to Korolev's R-7 ICBM (essentially a cluster of G-4's or R-3A's) and the N1 superbooster. Work on the G-4 continued through 1952.
|Burya on pad|
Credit: Lavochkin. 16,797 bytes. 273 x 186 pixels.
In parallel with the R-5 Korolev OKB NII-88 begins design of 8,000 km range winged missile.
Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On themes N1, N2, and N3 in the ballistic missile program.' was issued.
|Burya on erector|
Credit: Lavochkin. 14,071 bytes. 259 x 178 pixels.
In 1951 to 1953 Korolev's design bureau had prepared an experimental trisonic ramjet design, the EKR.The expert commission ifelt that there were still many technical problems to be solved, most of which were better handled by an aircraft designer rather than Korolev. Further, Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore a final government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles.
|Navaho vs Burya|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 10,772 bytes. 530 x 475 pixels.
Informal go-ahead was given for Korolev to start design work on the R-7. In parallel, Myasishchev OKB-23 and Lavochkin OKB-301 began design of intercontinental ramjet cruise missiles.
|Burya color 2|
Credit: Lavochkin. 9,147 bytes. 189 x 149 pixels.
Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 957-409 'On transfer of intercontinental cruise missile work to the Ministry of Aviation Industry' was issued. Korolev had to place the highest priority on development of the R-7 ICBM. Therefore the final government decree authorised the Lavochkin and Myasishchev aircraft design bureaux to proceed in parallel with full-scale development of trisonic intercontinental cruise missiles. Both missiles would use ramjet engines by Bondaryuk, astronavigation systems by R Chachikyan, inertial navigation systems by G Tolstoysov, and aerodynamics developed by TsAGI (Central Hydrodynamics Institute). Lavochkin's Burya would use rocket booster engines built by Glushko, while Myasishchev's Buran would use Isayev engines. Both missiles were to deliver a nuclear warhead over an 8,500 km range. But the warhead design specified for the Lavochkin missile had a total mass of 2,100 kg, while that for the Myasishchev missile weighed 3,500 kg.
Credit: Lavochkin. 7,107 bytes. 143 x 153 pixels.
The Lavochkin team completed preliminary design of the intercontinental Mach 3 cruise missile.
Myasishchev was just completing project design of his Buran design, while Lavochkin was already completing construction of the first Burya.
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Lavochkin experienced a major setback in when the payload requirement for the nuclear warhead was increased from 2,100 to 2,350 kg.
|Burya at dawn|
Credit: RKK Energia. 15,701 bytes. 361 x 287 pixels.
|Burya Model - Burya Chief Designers with Model|
Credit: RKK Energia. 22,234 bytes. 341 x 274 pixels.
A booster engine turbopump failed at T+30 seconds. Booster acceleration dropped and the flight was terminated
|Burya - Burya at launch position|
Credit: RKK Energia. 51,032 bytes. 609 x 420 pixels.
Objective was limited to test of operation of first stage boosters. The second stage was a mass model (the tanks were filled with sand). The flight was planned to last 96 seconds. The flight continued only to T+63 seconds. Severe vibrations were encountered and the missile was unstable in flight. At T+60 seconds, the autopilot put the missile into a dive.
|Burya - Burya's short first flight|
Credit: RKK Energia. 14,563 bytes. 609 x 111 pixels.
State Committee for Defence Technology (GKOT) Decree 'On the Creation of the Burya Winged Missile--course of work on 40 Burya' was issued.
|Burya on pad|
Credit: RKK Energia. 16,759 bytes. 359 x 215 pixels.
|Burya launch pad - Burya launch facility panorama|
Credit: RKK Energia. 43,386 bytes. 827 x 166 pixels.
As in previous flight, cruise stage 30% below design weight, and propellant tanks mainly filled with water. The flight continued to T+120 seconds. The boosters worked normally and shut off at T+90.5 seconds, with the vehicle at 17.3 km altitude and flying at Mach 2.95-2.97. Simultaneously the ramjets of the cruise stage ignited. Stage separation was normal and the aerodynamic sensors and diffuser worked normally.
Credit: RKK Energia. 19,179 bytes. 308 x 228 pixels.
Cruise stage tanks 2 and 3 and engine feed tank all filled with fuel. Tanks 1 and 4 were empty. The AVD Engine Cutoff System activated at T+6 seconds due to a problem in one of the chambers of the boosters. Launch did not occur.
|Burya - Burya at launch position|
Credit: RKK Energia. 27,391 bytes. 305 x 239 pixels.
Cruise stage tanks 1 and 4 empty. The flight lasted only to T+96 seconds. At this point, duirng fseparation of the boost and cruise stages the vehicle became unstable and was unable to achieve level powered cruise flight.
|Burya - Burya at launch position - side view|
Credit: RKK Energia. 18,107 bytes. 310 x 162 pixels.
Cruise stage tanks 1 and 4 empty. The boosters operated normally and the cruise stage ignited at Mach 2.95-3.0. At T+95 seconds there were problems at separation of the boosters, leading to cruise stage instability and an asymmetric airflow through the ramjet diffuser leading. This caused significant variations in thrust. The pressure in tank 3 dropped at T+160s econds and the ramjet flamed out.
|Burya rolled out - Burya rolled out under tarpulin|
Credit: RKK Energia. 24,533 bytes. 312 x 238 pixels.
Cruise stage tanks 1 and 4 empty. The flight continued to T+309 seconds, the longest to date, at which point the vehicle broke up due to an explosion in the empty propellant tank. The boosters operated normally but separation took place normally at Mach 3.3-3.4 (higher than expected).
|Burya raised - Burya raised to launch position|
Credit: RKK Energia. 16,065 bytes. 304 x 240 pixels.
Erroneous operation of the AVD abort system in one of the boosters prevented launch.
Credit: RKK Energia. 12,144 bytes. 268 x 240 pixels.
Credit: RKK Energia. 12,804 bytes. 306 x 240 pixels.
First flight with propellant in tank 4 of the cruise stage. Boosters featured an improved main engines without OT-155 valve (S2.1150 replacing S2.1100). The cruise stage used the improved RD-012U ramjet in place of the previous RD-012. The first stage operated faultlessly and separation was normal without vibrations. Ignition of the cruise stageo ccurred at Mach 2.87 at 16.8 km altitude. The SVD Air Sensor System worked abnormally, so the decision was made to disconnect the SVD sensors and fly the mission using only the astronavigation system and hold inertial velocity to Mach 3.15-3.2. The flight continued to T+10 minutes 17 seconds and the planned flight program was completed.
|Burya - Burya in vertical position - side view|
Credit: RKK Energia. 14,346 bytes. 232 x 321 pixels.
Decree 138-48 'On termination of work on the La-350 Burya at OKB-301' was issued. Project finally cancelled based on availability and invulnerability of R-7, R-9, and R-16 ICBM's. Flight test for technology purposes of already-built missiles was allowed to the end of the year.
Planned to fly complete course with astronavigation system. Missile successfully flew 5,500 km.
Planned to fly complete course with astronavigation system. Engine operation was rough due to high angle of attack (5-8°) of the diffuser. As a result, the flight was terminated at T+26 minutes after the missile had flown 1,500 km.
Planned to fly complete course from Vladimirovka to Cape Ozerniy. Launch mass of the booster stage was 97,215 kg, and that of the crusie stage 34,680 kg. The second stage ignited at Mach 2.85. The booster stage engines cut-off at Mach 3.2. Stage separation occurred normally at T+101.3 seconds. The cruise stage astronavigation system acquired its guide stars at T+114 seconds. The cruise stage began level flight at 18 km altitude. The vehicle flew along its assigned 6,500 km route for 2 hours 4 minutes at an altitude of 18-24.5 km at Mach 3.2-3.15. At T+118 minutes, with the fuel completely exhausted, the ramjet flamed out. At T+121 minutes power was transferred to the emergency batteries and the vehicle was issued a destruct command, but the rudders did not work. Flight with a steady loss of altitude continued to T+124 minutes.
Test of AN-2Sh astronavigation system capability for flight in both daytime and nighttime conditions. The missile flew a range of 6,425 km at Mach 3.1-3.2. The flight was only terminated when the cruise stage used up all of its propellant.