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astronautix.com Graphics Index Volume 70

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LK landing leg View of the LK leg to the left rear of the cosmonaut. Note the solid fuel nesting rocket mounted at an angle to the gear strut.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet01.jpg. Image width: 579 pixels. Image height: 397 pixels. Image size: 58,010 bytes.
LK base View of the base of the LK, below the ladder coming from the hatch.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet02.jpg. Image width: 577 pixels. Image height: 395 pixels. Image size: 58,478 bytes.
LK LPU View of the LK Block E to the right of the cosmonaut ladder. The blue antenna is part of the landing radar system. The instruments for this were mounted in a globular housing (missing on this mockup) mounted on the aluminum struts. These would have been left behind with the landing platform when the LK ascended to lunar orbit. Tanks for oxygen and water are arranged around the LPU in a manner to ensure the center of gravity of the LK remains on the thrust axis. That's the fin of a Scud missile in the foreground. Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet03.jpg. Image width: 572 pixels. Image height: 400 pixels. Image size: 65,211 bytes.
LK aft view View of the aft of the LK behind the cosmonaut. The dish antenna is for beaming of television of the landing back to earth. The conical antenna is for omnidirectional radio communications. A water tank of the cooling system is flanked by the two gear with their nesting rockets. Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet04.jpg. Image width: 373 pixels. Image height: 579 pixels. Image size: 70,654 bytes.
LK plumbing Closeup of plumbing at the base of the LPU. This water tank was part of the LK cooling system. The markings indicate a capacity of 25.3 l.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet05.jpg. Image width: 569 pixels. Image height: 398 pixels. Image size: 53,833 bytes.
LK LPU detail Closeup of the LK LPU section to the right of the cosmonaut. The red boxes are mockups of electronic black boxes. The oxygen tank and solid rocket nesting motors are clearly seen.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet06.jpg. Image width: 571 pixels. Image height: 397 pixels. Image size: 42,942 bytes.
LK Block E detail Closeup of the LK LPU section to the right of the cosmonaut. The red boxes are mockups of electrical / electronic black boxes and batteries.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet07.jpg. Image width: 397 pixels. Image height: 579 pixels. Image size: 51,619 bytes.
LK Block E Closeup of the side of the LK LPU section behind the cosmonaut. The large antenna would have deployed pointing upward to relay television pictures of the landing and moonwalk back to earth.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet08.jpg. Image width: 582 pixels. Image height: 400 pixels. Image size: 62,627 bytes.
LK landing pad Closeup of a landing pad, showing the construction of the strut and the fillets machines into the pad.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet09.jpg. Image width: 398 pixels. Image height: 574 pixels. Image size: 51,065 bytes.
LK ladder Closeup of the ladder leading to the LK hatch.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet10.jpg. Image width: 573 pixels. Image height: 398 pixels. Image size: 48,828 bytes.
LK entrance hatch The entrance hatch to the LK lunar lander. On the right is the large instrument section, with connector plates for interior/exterior connection of electrical, electric, and piping services.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet11.jpg. Image width: 580 pixels. Image height: 398 pixels. Image size: 56,456 bytes.
LK IOS Closeup Closeup view of the Integrated Orientation System block above the exit hatch, topped by the disk-shaped hexagonal mesh platform that the LOK would use to grapple the LK. The top of the instrument section, with the connection plate, is visible on the right. Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet12.jpg. Image width: 579 pixels. Image height: 399 pixels. Image size: 41,464 bytes.
LK ladder base Detail of the base of the ladder, showing the battery racks below the ladder. Note the shape of the foot pad.
Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet13.jpg. Image width: 527 pixels. Image height: 369 pixels. Image size: 50,394 bytes.
LK cabin View of the LK cabin with a crude mockup of the Integrated Orientation System block atop it. The disc antennae around the top of the block are of unknown purpose; possibly part of a radio-locator system to assist in finding the LOK during rendezvous operations. Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet14.jpg. Image width: 578 pixels. Image height: 397 pixels. Image size: 48,135 bytes.
LK landing leg View of the landing leg to the cosmonaut's front left. Note the solid rocket motors mounted above each leg that fired DOWN to settle the LK securely on the surface once the lander was near the surface. These greatly improved the chances of a safe landing. The system could handle landing on a 20% slope or with one leg on a moon rock. The descent ladder is seen coming from the hatch. The box at the base of the latter houses batteries for electric power. Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkdet15.jpg. Image width: 579 pixels. Image height: 398 pixels. Image size: 68,926 bytes.
LK Kontakt Dock Grid The LK was normally the passive vehicle in docking with the LOK. Atop the LK was this grid of 108 hexagonal holes, each a potential docking port for the snare docking probe of the LOK. This system allowed docking to take place without precision allignment of the two vehicles. File Name: lkdokgrd.jpg. Image width: 339 pixels. Image height: 244 pixels. Image size: 23,856 bytes.
LK Egress Tests Another view of LK egress tests, showing the challenge of squeezing through the LK hatch in the Kretchet suit.
File Name: lkegres0.jpg. Image width: 191 pixels. Image height: 269 pixels. Image size: 17,627 bytes.
LK Egress Tests Another view of LK egress tests. This view makes clear the large size of the backpack of the Kretchet suit and the tight squeeze getting into and out of the LK lander.
Credit: Filin. File Name: lkegres1.jpg. Image width: 249 pixels. Image height: 360 pixels. Image size: 36,740 bytes.
LK Egress Tests Another view of the LK egress tests.
File Name: lkegres2.jpg. Image width: 187 pixels. Image height: 270 pixels. Image size: 18,493 bytes.
LK Main Engine The LK engine cluster at the base of the lander. The single chamber RD-858 of the 2,050 kgf main engine is at the center. It is flanked by the two nozzles of the RD-859 2,045 kgf backup engine. The smaller nozzles are exhaust nozzles for the turbines of the pump-fed engines. At landing or takeoff, both the primary and backup engines would ignite. Only if both engines were operating, would one shut down. The thick clamshell doors closed over the engines after landing to insulate them and prevent injestion of lunar soil. Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkengine.jpg. Image width: 577 pixels. Image height: 398 pixels. Image size: 55,317 bytes.
LK/Blok E Evolution File Name: lkevol1.jpg. Image width: 389 pixels. Image height: 325 pixels. Image size: 16,624 bytes.
LK Evolution Steps in evolution of the LK lunar lander. Top row, from right to left: development of the Lunar Cabin progressed from a simple sphere housing a seated cosmonaut with separate twin equipment sections, to a single equpment section, then finally to the complex shape with separate equipment module required to provide good visibility for landing and docking. Middle row: Development of the Block E landing/ascent rocket stage was dictated by the requirements of minimum weight, symmetric depletion of the propellant tanks, and an aerodynamic shape to deflect exhaust at landing away from the engine bell. Bottom row: alternate LPU landing gear approaches considered. From left: toroidal landing ring, housing LPU equipment; wild landing bag/water stabilised approach; variants on conventional gear. File Name: lkevol2.jpg. Image width: 798 pixels. Image height: 395 pixels. Image size: 37,434 bytes.
LK at Korolev LK exhibited at Korolev School. Note the optical device on the upper porthole, part of the semi-automatic optical docking system. This is not seen on other LK's exhibited.
Credit: Jakob Terweij. File Name: lkextkor.jpg. Image width: 298 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 38,493 bytes.
LK landing leg View of the landing leg to the cosmonaut's front left. Note the solid rocket motors mounted above each leg that fired DOWN to settle the LK securely on the surface once the lander was near the surface. Yangel OKB tests proved such rockets greatly improved the chances of the rocket not toppling if landing on a 30 degree slope or with one leg on a moon rock. The descent ladder is seen to the right of the picture. Location: Orevo. Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkfrontl.jpg. Image width: 481 pixels. Image height: 400 pixels. Image size: 44,828 bytes.
LK Detail forward view drawing of the LK lunar lander.
Credit: © Mark Wade. File Name: lkgood.gif. Image width: 421 pixels. Image height: 464 pixels. Image size: 8,592 bytes.
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Last update 12 March 2001.
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