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astronautix.com Graphics Index Volume 139

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Freedom Sunset 1993: End of Space Station Freedom. The Sun sets on the Space Station "Fred" project.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssf933.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 379 pixels. Image size: 34,481 bytes.
Freedom 1990 1988-90: Problems For Space Station Freedom. The Space Station Freedom design was slightly modified in late 1989 after the program's budget again was reduced. For example, the radiators and attitute control thrusters were simplified. NASA also briefly considered replacing the solar panels with solar thermodynamic power generators, which cost less in the long term but would have required another $50-100 million research & development investment. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssf9j90.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 429 pixels. Image size: 53,406 bytes.
Power Tower Station Power Tower Space Station - 1984. Boeing's "Power Tower" proposal. The company's Space Station studies were a major factor behind NASA's decision to adopt the design.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssfb84.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 354 pixels. Image size: 38,631 bytes.
Freedom Crew Modules Space Station Freedom Crew Modules. Outside view of the Boeing Space Station "Freedom" crew modules and nodes. The connecting node modules were expanded in late 1986 and filled with equipment to reduce the need for mounting exterior components. This would hopefully reduce the number of required EVA "spacewalks" for assembly and maintenance. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssfcad8.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 407 pixels. Image size: 28,895 bytes.
Dual Keel Station/86 Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssfkey86.jpg. Image width: 608 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 81,672 bytes.
1984 Douglas Station 1984 Space Station Study (McDonnell-Douglas). McDonnell-Douglas had already studied the NASA/Marshall Science & Applications Manned Space Platform in considerable detail when they received another space station definition contract in August 1982. The enlarged design depicted here appears to be loosely based on SAMSP. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssfmcd84.jpg. Image width: 547 pixels. Image height: 444 pixels. Image size: 43,479 bytes.
1984 Martin Station Power Tower Space Station Contractor Study. Martin Marietta's "Power Tower" Space Station design. Some observers were criticial of the contractors' lack of independent involvement in the design process. They felt Station contractors did nothing but ape NASA's configurations in order to win the contract. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssfmm84.jpg. Image width: 633 pixels. Image height: 479 pixels. Image size: 57,780 bytes.
Dual Keel Station Dual Keel Space Station - 1986. This diagram shows the distribution of work between the four NASA centers and international partners during Phase B in April 1985-87.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssfprg86.gif. Image width: 637 pixels. Image height: 440 pixels. Image size: 20,941 bytes.
Freedom 1987 1987: Space Station Freedom. Space Station work distribution following the 1987 redesign. As always, considerable political filling and sanding was required since the Lewis and Goddard Spaceflight Center-led Work Packages mostly involved "Dual Keel" elements that now were postponed indefinitely. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssfprg87.gif. Image width: 632 pixels. Image height: 468 pixels. Image size: 21,973 bytes.
Fred Station 1991 1991 Fred Space Station Redesign. The 1991 Space Station work redistribution plan. General Electric's Work Package 3 contract with NASA/Goddard was terminated along with the Station's remaining external payloads and polar platform. The only remaining mission was now life sciences and microgravity research. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssfprg91.gif. Image width: 636 pixels. Image height: 418 pixels. Image size: 18,629 bytes.
Grumman Station 1982 Early 1980S Space Station Studies (Grumman). Like the other contractors, Grumman focused on space stations driven by user requirements. The initial space station could be assembled quickly and inexpensively from modules launched on the Space Shuttle. It would have a crew of three astronauts. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssg82a.gif. Image width: 570 pixels. Image height: 374 pixels. Image size: 6,389 bytes.
Grumman Station 1982 Early 1980S Space Station Studies (Grumman). Grumman's expanded 9-man space station for the late 1990s would also have been capable of servicing spacecraft.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssg82c.jpg. Image width: 305 pixels. Image height: 194 pixels. Image size: 18,248 bytes.
Modular Station 1972 MSFC Modular Station 1972
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssm1272.jpg. Image width: 596 pixels. Image height: 471 pixels. Image size: 57,937 bytes.
Modular Station 1971 Rockwell Modular Station 1971
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssm12r.jpg. Image width: 561 pixels. Image height: 429 pixels. Image size: 56,560 bytes.
Modular Station 1971 Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssm6r.jpg. Image width: 599 pixels. Image height: 478 pixels. Image size: 52,108 bytes.
Modular Station 1971 McDonnell Douglas Modular Station 1971
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssmd671.jpg. Image width: 404 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 46,081 bytes.
Modular Station 1975 Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssmof75.jpg. Image width: 634 pixels. Image height: 424 pixels. Image size: 40,518 bytes.
1984 MSFC Station 1984 Space Station Option - Planar. The Marshall Space Flight Center's "CDG Planar" design is quite similar to the final International Space Station concept chosen in 1993. This was one of the rejected "Final Four" designs.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssmsfc84.jpg. Image width: 639 pixels. Image height: 508 pixels. Image size: 66,967 bytes.
Space Station Cost Annual Cost to first Assembly Flight of the Various US Station Programs. Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the Space Station project has been its costand the project's opponents and proponents frequently cite various figures to backup their claims. Here is a quick summary of what the project has cost so far. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssrdcost.gif. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 438 pixels. Image size: 8,518 bytes.
Rockwell Station '76 Rockwell Space Station Concept, 1976
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssri76n.jpg. Image width: 552 pixels. Image height: 482 pixels. Image size: 68,123 bytes.
Canadian RMS 1994 Canadian Remote Manipulator System. The 1993 International Space Station redesign delayed the launch of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (as it now was called) by at least four years, but the SSRMS remains a crucial part of ISS
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ssrms94s.jpg. Image width: 320 pixels. Image height: 240 pixels. Image size: 28,321 bytes.
Station Simulator Space Station Simulator 1986
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: sssim86p.jpg. Image width: 453 pixels. Image height: 329 pixels. Image size: 21,162 bytes.
NASA / Rockwell SSTO NASA / Rockwell Single Stage to Orbit winged launch vehicle
Credit: NASA. File Name: sstorock.jpg. Image width: 239 pixels. Image height: 427 pixels. Image size: 14,770 bytes.
TRW RSS 1990 Robotic Satellite Servicer - TRW. TRW's Robotic Satellite Servicer (bottom) from 1990 would have consisted of an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and a Flight Telerobotic Servicer. The OMV would have delivered the FTS to other spacecraft for refueling or repair. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: sstrw906.jpg. Image width: 497 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 42,943 bytes.
Station Modules 1969 Credit: NASA. File Name: stamods.gif. Image width: 595 pixels. Image height: 389 pixels. Image size: 14,310 bytes.
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