This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at www.astronautix.com

astronautix.com Graphics Index Volume 137

Previous VolumeNext Volume
Station Plan - 1984 Space Station Mission Plan - 1984.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84pln5.jpg. Image width: 483 pixels. Image height: 478 pixels. Image size: 54,461 bytes.
Planar Station-1984 1984 Space Station Options - Planar.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84plnr.gif. Image width: 607 pixels. Image height: 403 pixels. Image size: 6,054 bytes.
Power Options - 1984 Space Station Power Options. Space Station Work Package 4, led by the Lewis Research Center, would investigate Space Station power options. The two leading contenders are shown here: photovoltaic solar arrays (top) and solar thermodynamic generators (bottom) Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84pow.jpg. Image width: 473 pixels. Image height: 478 pixels. Image size: 43,744 bytes.
Power Tower Station Power Tower Space Station - 1984. The NASA Concept Definition Team eventually selected the Boeing/Grumman "Power Tower" design as its baseline.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84ptwr.gif. Image width: 512 pixels. Image height: 411 pixels. Image size: 7,665 bytes.
Power Tower Station Power Tower Space Station Contractor Studies. Rockwell's "Power Tower" Space Station design.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84r134.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 57,030 bytes.
Power Options - 1984 Space Station Power Options. NASA awarded contracts to Work Package 4 contractors TRW and Lockheed. The agency still had not decided whether solar thermodynamic generators (above) or photovoltaic arrays would be chosen.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84sdpg.jpg. Image width: 627 pixels. Image height: 433 pixels. Image size: 60,938 bytes.
Power Tower Station Power Tower Space Station Contractor Studies. Lockheed's "Power Tower" Space Station design.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84tl6.jpg. Image width: 361 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 44,395 bytes.
TRW Station-1984 Early 1980S Space Station Studies (TRW).
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84trw.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 56,834 bytes.
TRW Station-1984 Early 1980S Space Station Studies (TRW). TRW further developed its earlier Science & Applications Manned Space Platform concept under the August 1982 NASA contract. The initial space station shown here would have supported a crew of 4 astronauts.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84trw4.jpg. Image width: 592 pixels. Image height: 422 pixels. Image size: 55,792 bytes.
TRW Station-1984 Power Tower Space Station Contractor Studies. "Power Tower" Space Station design by TRW.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss84trw9.jpg. Image width: 505 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 53,550 bytes.
McAir Station-1984 Dual Keel Space Station Crew Module. McDonnell-Douglas illustration of the "Dual Keel" crew modules.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss85md3.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 479 pixels. Image size: 63,720 bytes.
Dual Keel Station/85 Dual Keel Space Station - 1985.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss85r90.jpg. Image width: 511 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 51,361 bytes.
Dual Keel Station/85 Dual Keel Space Station - 1985. Rockwell's "Dual Keel" proposal at various stages of the assembly process.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss85r97.jpg. Image width: 517 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 53,021 bytes.
Dual Keel Station/86 Dual Keel Space Station - 1986. NASA radically changed its Space Station baseline design in October 1985 following frequent complaints from users and astronauts. The new "Dual Keel" Station was largely based on Lockheed and McDonnell-Douglas designs and its structure was much stiffer and hence easier to stabilize. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86diag.gif. Image width: 438 pixels. Image height: 477 pixels. Image size: 18,411 bytes.
Freedom Phase 2 Space Station Freedom Phase Two Growth. Technically, the $3-4 billion Phase Two "Dual Keel" spacecraft assembly and servicing facility was still in the 1987 baseline. But there was no funding commitment and NASA officials privately expressed doubt it would ever be built. Advocates of manned planetary exploration (e.g. the Planetary Society) were upset when NASA removed the Station's large spacecraft assembly & checkout capability. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86fr1.jpg. Image width: 626 pixels. Image height: 459 pixels. Image size: 72,185 bytes.
Dual Keel Station/86 Dual Keel Space Station - 1986-87. Another early 1986 modification involved the power system, which was upgraded to 87.5KW. By the end of Phase B1 in March 1986, NASA had settled for a hybrid system consisting of 37.5KW photovoltaic arrays and 50KW solar thermodynamic generators. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86iir4.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 384 pixels. Image size: 56,082 bytes.
Dual Keel Station/86 Dual Keel Space Station - 1986-87
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86le1.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 417 pixels. Image size: 43,795 bytes.
Dual Keel Station/86 Dual Keel Space Station - Bridge To Other Worlds - 1986. This illustration from the National Space Commission's "Pioneering the Space Frontier" report depicts an early 21st century "Dual Keel" type spaceport in Earth orbit. At right is the "Orient Express" National Aerospace Plane proposed by President Reagan in 1986 while a space tug is returning from lunar orbit (top right).. This illustration from 1986 depicts the assembly of two manned Mars spacecraft at the "Dual Keel" Space Station. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86leo.jpg. Image width: 540 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 43,205 bytes.
Martin Station-1986 Dual Keel Space Station - 1986-87. NASA struggled to define a "Dual Keel" design that met all the various cost,engineering,safety,launch and user requirements. By the time Phase B1 ended in March 1986, the size of the truss structure elements had been increased from 3 x 3 meters to 5 x 5 meters for additional strength and stiffness. Shown here is Martin Marietta's concept. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86mm8.jpg. Image width: 510 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 64,663 bytes.
MSFC Station-1986 Dual Keel Space Station - 1986-87. NASA Space Station Office submitted its recommended final baseline in May 1986 as Phase C/D started. The number of instrument mounting ports was reduced to five, down from an earlier projection of nine. One of the two bays for satellite servicing was also deleted. Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86msfc.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 480 pixels. Image size: 47,651 bytes.
Dual Keel Station/86 Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86nw.jpg. Image width: 317 pixels. Image height: 267 pixels. Image size: 23,097 bytes.
Dual Keel Station/86 Dual Keel Space Station - 1985. "Dual Keel" Space Station illustration from the 1986 "Pioneering the Space Frontier" report. Note Hubble Space Telescope at upper left.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86psf1.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 478 pixels. Image size: 53,442 bytes.
Station Design 1986 1982 : NASA Issues Space Station Study Contracts.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss86tc1.jpg. Image width: 640 pixels. Image height: 350 pixels. Image size: 38,908 bytes.
Dual Keel Assembly Dual Keel Space Station Assembly Sequence - 1987.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss87asq4.jpg. Image width: 639 pixels. Image height: 516 pixels. Image size: 60,885 bytes.
Freedom 1987 1987: Space Station Freedom.
Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. File Name: ss87diag.gif. Image width: 629 pixels. Image height: 340 pixels. Image size: 16,936 bytes.
Previous VolumeNext Volume

Back to Index
Last update 12 March 2001.
Contact Mark Wade with any corrections or comments.
Conditions for use of drawings, pictures, or other materials from this site..
© Mark Wade, 2001 .