First attempted launch of STS-88 was scrubbed at 09:03 GMT on December 3 due to a problem with a hydraulic system sensor. Launch came the next day, with Endeavour entering an initial 75 km x 313 km x 51.6 degree orbit. Half an orbit after launch, at 09:19 GMT, Endeavour fired its OMS engines to raise the orbit to 180 km x 322 km x 51.6 degree.
On December 5 at 22:25 GMT Nancy Currie unberthed the Unity space station node from the payload bay using the RMS arm. She then moved the Unity to a position docked to the Orbiter Docking System in the payload bay in readiness for assembly with the Russian-launched Zarya FGB ISS component. After rendezvous with the Zarya FGB module, on December 6 at 23:47 GMT Endeavour grappled Zarya with the robot arm, and at 02:07 GMT on December 7 it was soft docked to the PMA-1 port on Unity. After some problems hard dock was achieved at 02:48 GMT. Unity and Zarya then formed the core of the future International Space Station. Ross and Newman made three space walks to connect cables between Zarya and Unity, on December 7, 9 and 12. On the last EVA a canvas tool bag was attached to the exterior of Unity to provide tools for future station assembly workers. Docking cables were disconnected to prevent Unity and Zarya from inadvertently undocking. Following an internal examination of the embryonic space station, Endeavour undocked at 20:30 GMT on December 13. The SAC-A and Mightysat satellites were ejected from the payload bay on December 14 and 15. Deorbit burn was December 16 at 03:48 GMT, and Endeavour landed at 04:53:29 GMT, on Runway 15 at the Kennedy Space Center.
NASA Press Kit -STS-88
Mission Objectives The STS-88 "Unity" mission is the first manned International Space Station assembly flight. The primary mission objective is to rendezvous with the already launched Zarya control module and successfully attach the Unity connecting module, providing the foundation for future ISS components.
Commander: Robert D. Cabana
Pilot: Frederick (Rick) W. Sturckow
Mission Specialist 1: Jerry L. Ross
Mission Specialist 2: Nancy J. Currie
Mission Specialist 3: James H. Newman
Mission Specialist 4: Sergei Krikalev
Orbiter: Endeavour OV105
Launch Site: Pad 39-A Kennedy Space Center
Launch Window: 10 minutes
Altitude: 173 nm (210 nm for rendezvous)
Inclination: 51.6 degrees
Duration: 11 Days 19 Hrs. 49 Min.
Shuttle Liftoff Weight: 4,518,390 lbs
Orbiter alone is 263,927 lbs.
Software Version: OI-26B
Space Shuttle Main Engines
SSME 1: SN-2043
SSME 2: SN-2044
SSME 3: SN-2045
Super Light Weight Tank
Abort Landing Sites
RTLS: Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
TAL: Zaragoza, Spain; ALTERNATES: Ben Guerir, Morocco; Moron, Spain
AOA: Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC; ALTERNATES: White Sands Space Harbor, NM
Landing Date: 12/14/98
Landing Time: 11:48 PM (eastern time)
Primary Landing Site: Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
ALTERNATE: Edwards Air Force Base, CA
Orbiter/Payload Weight at Landing: 200,296 lbs.
Payloads Cargo Bay
UNITY Connecting Module
IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC)
Satelite de Aplicaciones/Cientifico-A (SAC-A)
Getaway Special G-093
Space Experiment Module (SEM-07)
Space Shuttle mission STS-88, the 13th flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour, will begin the largest international cooperative space venture in history as it attaches together in orbit the first two modules of the International Space Station.
Endeavour will carry the Unity connecting module, the first U.S.-built station module, into orbit, launching from Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39A at 3:59 a.m. EST Dec. 3. Endeavour’s launch will follow the launch of the first element of the statio the Zarya control module which took place on Nov. 20, 1998.
Zarya was boosted into orbit by a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakstan. Funded by the U.S. but built in Russia, Zarya will act as a type of space tugboat for the early station, providing propulsion, power, communications and the capability to perform an automated rendezvous and docking with the third module, the Russian-provided Service Module, an early living quarters. Since achieving orbit, Zarya has gone through on-orbit checks and now awaits the arrival of Endeavour and Unity. Unity will serve as the main connecting point for later U.S. station modules and components.
Astronaut Robert D. (Bob) Cabana (Col., USMC) will command STS-88. Joining Cabana on the flight deck of Endeavour will be pilot Frederick "Rick" Sturckow (Major, USMC). Rounding out the crew are Mission Specialists Nancy Currie (Lt. Col., USA), Jerry Ross (Col., USAF), Jim Newman, Ph.D., and Sergei Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut. Ross and Newman also are designated extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers and will perform three spacewalks during the mission.
STS-88 marks Cabana's fourth flight in space. He served as chief of the Astronaut Office at JSC from 1994 until his selection for the STS-88 crew. Currie and Newman each will be making their third flight into space. Ross will be making his sixth space flight. Sturckow will be making his first space flight. Krikalev has flown in space three times, twice on the Mir space station and once on the Shuttle. Krikalev also is a member of the first crew that will live aboard the new station in mid-1999.
Cabana will fly Endeavour to a rendezvous with Zarya, and Currie will use the Shuttle's robotic arm to capture the Russian-built spacecraft and attach it to the Unity module in the Shuttle cargo bay. Zarya will be the most massive object ever moved with the Shuttle's mechanical arm. On later days of the flight, Ross and Newman will conduct three spacewalks to finalize the connections between Zarya and Unity, beginning five years of orbital assembly work that will construct the new space station.
After its assembly work is completed and it has undocked from the station, Endeavour will release two small science satellites. After almost 12 days in space that begin a new era of exploration and research in orbit, Endeavour will land at the Kennedy Space Center.
The first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station, a six-sided connecting module and passageway, or node, named Unity, will be the primary cargo of Space Shuttle mission STS-88, the first mission dedicated to assembly of the station.
The Unity connecting module, technically referred to as node 1, will lay a foundation for all future U.S. International Space Station modules with six berthing ports, one on each side, to which future modules will be attached. Built by The Boeing Company at a manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, Unity is the first of three such connecting modules that will be built for the station. Sometimes referred to as Node 1, the Unity module measures 15 feet in diameter and 18 feet long.
Meeting in Space
Carried to orbit aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, Unity will be mated with the already orbiting Zarya control module, or Functional Cargo Block (Russian acronym FGB), a U.S.-funded and Russian-built component that will have been launched earlier aboard a Russian rocket from Kazakstan. In addition to connecting to the Zarya module, Unity eventually will provide attachment points for the U.S. laboratory module; Node 3; an early exterior framework, or truss for the station; an airlock; and a multi-windowed cupola.
Essential space station resources such as fluids, environmental control and life support systems, electrical and data systems are routed through Unity to supply work and living areas.
More than 50,000 mechanical items, 216 lines to carry fluids and gases, and 121 internal and external electrical cables using six miles of wire were installed in the Unity node. The detailed and complex hardware installation required more than 1,800 drawings. The node is made of aluminum.
Pressurized Mating Adapters
Two conical docking adapters will be attached to each end of Unity prior to its launch aboard Endeavour. The adapters, called pressurized mating adapters (PMAs), allow the docking systems used by the Space Shuttle and by Russian modules to attach to the node's hatches and berthing mechanisms. One of the conical adapters will attach Unity to the Zarya, while the other will serve as a docking port for the Space Shuttle. The Unity node with the two mating adapters attached, the configuration it will be in for launch, is about 36 feet long and weighs about 25,600 pounds.
Attached to the exterior of one of the pressurized mating adapters are computers, or multiplexer-demultiplexers (MDMs), which will provide early command and control of the Unity node. Unity also will be outfitted with an early communications system that will allow data, voice and low data rate video with Mission Control, Houston, to supplement Russian communications systems during the early station assembly activities.
The two remaining nodes are being built by the European Space Agency (ESA) for NASA in Italy by Alenia Aerospazio. Nodes 2 and 3 will be slightly longer than the Unity node, measuring almost 21 feet long, and each will hold eight standard space station equipment racks in addition to six berthing ports. ESA is building the two additional nodes as partial payment for the launch of the ESA Columbus laboratory module and other equipment on the Space Shuttle. Unity holds four equipment racks.
The International Space Station will allow scientists to conduct long-duration experiments and research in the environment of space. It is the largest peacetime scientific mission in history and combines the resources of 16 nations. When completely assembled in 2004, the International Space Station will have a mass of more than 1 million pounds and provide more than 46,000 cubic feet of pressurized living and working space for up to seven astronauts and scientists.
Prime: Jerry Ross
Backup: James Newman
The primary objectives of ICBC on STS-88 are to film the Node 1 installation onto the orbiter docking system (ODS), the functional cargo block (FGB) rendezvous, FGB docking, extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks, separation burn, and flyaround.
The ICBC is a space-qualified, 65 mm color motion picture camera system consisting of a camera, lens assembly, and a film supply magazine containing approximately 3,500 feet of film and an empty take-up magazine. The camera is housed in an insulated, pressurized enclosure with a movable lens window cover. The optical centerline of the 30 mm camera lens is fixed and points directly out of the payload bay along the orbiter Z-axis with a 23-degree rotation toward the orbiter nose. Heaters and thermal blankets provide proper thermal conditioning for the camera electronics, camera window, and film magazines.
For STS-88, the delivery reel is loaded with 3,500 feet of film (nominally), enough for approximately 10.5 minutes of filming at normal camera speed (24 frames per second, fps). On this flight, the camera speed can be changed to 6 fps for photographing slower moving objects. The ICBC can also be loaded with a 2,200-foot film magazine. A single 30 mm wide-angle lens is mounted on the camera; lenses and film cannot be changed during the flight. ICBC operations are terminated when all film is exposed.
The ICBC is controlled from the aft flight deck with the enhanced GAS autonomous payload controller (GAPC) and uses orbiter dc power. A crew member can command the ICBC to turn main power on, go to a standby mode, adjust f-stop and focus, and film a scene. A spotmeter will be used by the crew to aid in setting the IMAX camera f-stops. By using the GAPC, the crew member can also determine the status of the camera, such as the current f-stop and the amount of film exposed. A light level measurement unit is used to set the lens aperture. A fixed focus zone and seven aperture settings are available for this flight. A tape recorder is also provided for crew documentation. All the GAS hardware, such as the GAS control decoders, status responder units, GAPCs, and the GAS signal and control cable, are owned, serviced, and certified by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.
The basic operational profile of the ICBC is as follows: enable the heaters within seven hours of launch or approximately 30 minutes before a planned payload activity to be filmed, maintain thermal conditioning of the camera and film magazine, perform a typical filming sequence, and return to thermal conditioning.
A typical filming sequence begins with powering the camera in standby mode. This consists of powering up the internal camera electronics, feed magazine and drive, take-up magazine and drive, IMAX interface electronics, and the lens drive to a standby mode. The f-stop, focus, and frame rate are adjusted to the desired settings. Actual filming occurs when the door motor and camera drive motor are operated. The camera then returns to standby until the end of the filming sequence.
The IMAX project is a collaboration between NASA, the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, IMAX Systems Corp., and the Lockheed Corp. This system, developed by IMAX Systems Corp. of Toronto, Canada, uses specially designed 65 mm cameras and projectors to record and display very high definition color motion pictures which, accompanied by six-channel high-fidelity sound, are displayed on screens in IMAX and OMNIMAX theaters that are up to ten times larger than a conventional screen, producing a feeling of "being there."
The 65 mm film from STS-88 will be transferred to 70 mm motion picture film for use in a future large-format feature film. An audio tape recorder with microphones in the crew compartment will record middeck sounds and crew comments during camera operations. The audio will then be transferred to tapes or compact disks to accompany the motion picture.
IMAX cameras have been flown on space shuttle missions STS-41-C, 41-D, 41-G, -29, -34, -32, -31, -42, -46, -51, -61, -63, -71, and -74 to document crew operations in the payload bay and the orbiter's middeck and flight deck as well as to film spectacular views of space and Earth. Film from those missions was used as the basis for the IMAX productions "The Dream Is Alive," "The Blue Planet," and "Destiny in Space."
The IMAX project is designed to document significant space activities and promote NASA's educational goals using the IMAX film medium.
Prime: Frederick (Rick) Sturckow Principal Investigator: Lt. Barbara Braun, Air Force Research Laboratory. Backup: Robert Cabana
MightySat is a United States Air Force Phillips Laboratory multi-mission, small satellite program dedicated to providing frequent, inexpensive, on-orbit demonstrations of space system technologies.
The MightySat payload will launched from the Shuttle via the Hitchhiker Ejection System, which is managed out of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The payload will deployed on flight day twelve.
The primary objective of the MightySat program is to provide on-orbit demonstrations of emerging technologies. Data from the mission will be used to support decisions on the readiness of the tested technology for Air Force missions.
The Mightysat-1 payload is a non-retrievable spacecraft that will be deployed from the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88. The MightySat payload has five advance technology demonstration experiments. The Advanced Composite Structure, which serves as the structure for the vehicle, has no command interfaces with the spacecraft. All relevant data on the structure will be captured in ground testing. The Advanced Solar Cell Experiment will test the performance of dual-junction solar cells comprised of Gallium Indium Phosphide layers atop a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) layer. These dual junction cells provide more power than conventional GaAs cells. As a result, this advance in space power technology can be useful for power–intensive sensors in the future and small satellite missions which have power constraints.
The Microsystem and Packaging for Low Power Electronics (MAPLE) experiment is a demonstration of advanced microelectronics and electronics packaging techniques. The objective is to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electronics in the space environment. The Shape-Memory Actuated Release Device (SMARD) payload will demonstrate a new class of low shock release devices. Release devices are used to separate satellites from launch vehicle adapters, or to deploy antennae, solar arrays, and sensor covers. Such devices offer reduced shock levels because the separation time is longer. They are low-cost and can be completely reset. Lastly, the objective of the Micro-Particle Impact Detector (MPID) experiment is to place as many detectors into space to provide indications of natural and man-made orbital debris.
The payload will be mounted in the orbiter bay 6 port location on a GSFC-provided HH ABA, with the MightySat 1 canister mounted in the forward position and the HH avionics mounted in the aft position.
After the payload bay doors are opened, the crew will activate the power and signal path to the HH carrier via the standard switch panel. The satellite will be ejected from the HH canister on Flight Day 12. MightySat 1 is spring-ejected at a minimum rate of 1.7 fps and requires an overflight of a specific location in Albuquerque, N.M. within 6 hours of deploy. Once ejection is complete, flight operations are complete for the satellite. Telemetry and command capability will then be via the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at GSFC.
The program manager for MightySat-1 is Lt. Barbara Braun from the Air Force Research Laboratory.
MightySat 1 is the first flight of a U.S. Air Force (USAF) Philips Laboratory/Space Experiments Directorate ejectable technology demonstration platform. Four advanced technologies will be demonstrated on MightySat 1. These technologies include a composite structure, advanced solar cells, advanced electronics, and a shock device.
Prime: Frederick (Rick) Sturckow Backup: Robert Cabana
The Scientific Applications Satellite-S (SAC-A) is a small, ejectable, low cost satellite that will be launched during the STS-88 Space Shuttle Endeavour mission. SAC-A is a cooperative mission between NASA and the Argentine National Commission on Space Activities (CONAE). The mission is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s (Greenbelt, MD) International Projects Office. The program manager is Dino Machi, and the mission scientist is Dr. Mario Acuna.
The main objective of SAC-A is to provide engineering bench testing for new space science technology instruments and equipment that will be used in a more complex spacecraft for the Argentine space program. SAC-A will be installed in a Hitchhiker Ejection System, which is managed at Goddard.
Goddard’s role in this mission is to provide the Hitchhiker canister and ejection system used for deploying the satellite into space and to ensure the safety of the satellite. CoNAE is responsible for the design, construction, instrument development, mission operations, tracking and data acquisition for the SAC-A payload.
The mission will place into orbit various Argentine technologies that will provide useful scientific information in real world applications. The design, development, testing and operation of SAC-A will enable Argentine aerospace engineers to gain experience in spacecraft design and operations.
SAC-A will be deployed on flight day eleven. Depending on solar activity and orbital altitude, SAC-A will have a four to eight month orbital life.
SAC-A is comprised of five separate experiments:
The Differential Global Positioning System Receiver experiment will provide real time autonomous attitude measurements for the satellite, ultimately simplifying the amount of ground processing required to control an orbiting satellite. The experiment will provide long term test data for the receiver.
The Charge Coupled Device Camera will test the camera for digital space photography performance. This camera will focus on Earth imaging photography.
The Magnetometer experiment will investigate the Earth’s magnetic field and evaluate the Differential Global Positioning System Receiver performance.
Next, the Solar Cells Experiment will evaluate the performance of a new solar cell design. This experiment will be an in-flight assessment of the solar cells and panels developed by the Argentine National Commission of Atomic Energy.
The Whale Tracker experiment will validate techniques which will be used in the future to track the endangered whale population using hardware developed in Argentina.
The principal investigators for the various experiments are as follows: Mario Acuna for the Magnetometer experiment; Roberto Alonso from CoNAE for the Differential Global Positioning System; Juan Yelos of CoNAE for the Charge Coupled Device Camera; Julio Duran from CoNAE for the Solar Cells experiment; and the Natural Resources Secretary of the Argentine Government is responsible for the Whale Tracker experiment.
The SAC-A payload consists of the SAC-A installed in a Hitchhiker (HH) canister equipped with an HH ejection system and an HH motorized door assembly (HMDA). SAC-A is mounted in the forward position on an adapter beam, which is attached to the side wall of the orbiter in the Bay 2 port location.
The satellite power will not be applied until the flight crew opens the HMDA. As the HMDA opens, a switch on top of the satellite will engage, and power from the satellite batteries will be applied to a single momentum wheel. The satellite may be ejected after a minimum of 3 minutes to provide time for the momentum wheel to reach its operating speed.
SAC-A will be deployed from a near-circular orbit with an inclination greater than 38°. It requires a postejection mean orbit height of 200 nautical miles. The end of SAC-A orbital operational lifetime occurs at 135 nautical miles.
A mean altitude of 200 nautical miles at ejection will give the SAC-A an estimated orbit lifetime between five months (using a worst-case solar flux) and nine months (using a best-case solar flux), with seven months being a best estimate. The minimum acceptable lifetime for SAC-A is five months.
SAC-A will have a minimum ejection velocity of 2.6 fps. During the payload deployment operations, the orbiter attitude control will nominally be maintained by the Vernier Reaction Control System (VRCS). The VRCS will be inhibited prior to payload deployment until visual verification that SAC-A has cleared the payload bay. Should the VRCS fail, the Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) will be selected for attitude control. The PRCS will be inhibited prior to the payload deployment until visual verification that the payload has cleared the payload bay.
At a predetermined time after ejection, another set of switches will engage, and the batteries will provide power to the remaining SAC-A systems.
During the mission, SAC-A will be controlled from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at GSFC.
This is the first flight of SAC-A, a small, nonrecoverable satellite built by the Argentinean National Commission of Space Activities (CONAE). The satellite payload includes a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, Argentinean-built silicon solar cells, and a magnetometer.
SAC-A will test and characterize the performance of new equipment and technologies that may be used in future operational or scientific missions.
Prime: Jerry Ross Principal Investigator: Sven Bilen, University of Michigan Backup: James Newman
The G-093R payload was designed and built by the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEEDS). Also known as the Vortex Ring Transit Experiment, G-093R will attempt to answer basic questions about fluid atomization—the process whereby a liquid is converted into small droplets.
Without the presence of gravity, the physics of this process can be examined as never before. More specifically, VORTEX will investigate the propagation of a vortex ring through a liquid-gas interface in microgravity. As the vortex ring propagates through the interface, it forms one or more liquid droplets. The scientific objective of the experiment is to conduct observations of the liquid-droplet-formation process in the case of surface-tension-dominated interface dynamics.
In microgravity, the same interface dynamics can be examined in large droplets thus facilitating detailed experimental observation. The data returned should lead to better methods for atomizing fuel (important in the operation of internal-combustion engines), producing metal powders of desired characteristics (powder metallurgy), and aerosol generators for biomedical applications (better inhalers for the treatment of asthma and other illnesses).
In addition to the research questions to be answered, the students have learned how to work with industry, academia, and government. These students, who have ranged from first year of college to graduate students in fields ranging from engineering to liberal arts, have gained valuable hands-on experience with a real-world engineering project. The students have handled all project management, and technical aspects under the guidance of a faculty advisor who acts as the payload customer and NASA contact person.
The main components of the G-093R experiment are a fluid test-cell system, a laser-based illumination system, a charge-coupled device (CCD) digital imaging system, and a computer-based data acquisition and control system.
For each experiment, the fluid test cell is partially filled with silicone oil to establish the liquid/gas interface. The vortex ring generator, which is located at the bottom of the test cell, consists of a piston moving inside a cylindrical cavity. For each test, the piston lowers itself in the cylinder at which point the cylinder is filled with silicone oil seeded with silver-coated hollow glass microspheres. The rapid upward motion of the piston generates the vortex ring that propagates to the liquid/gas interface.
The laser system is used to illuminate a cross section of the fluid test cell. The CCD camera captures digital images of the fluid motion and the drop formation process which are then stored in the computer. A data acquisition system attached to the experiment simultaneously records the liquid temperature and the acceleration in the fluid test cell. All the data is stored on hard disk for analysis after the canister is returned to Earth.
During ascent, a barometric altitude switch will activate the G-093 payload power and Thermal Control System (TCS). Early in the mission the crew will unstow and set up the Payload and General Support Computer/Bus Interface Adapter (PGSC/BIA) in the Aft Flight Deck (AFD). The crew will then initiate the experiment, just prior to a low-g period (1.0 X 10-4) lasting 8 hours. It is desired that no Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem (OMS) firings occur during this time. The experiment is controlled by an internal sequencer, which will allow the experiment to operate for 8 hours. A minimum of 8 hours after experiment activation, the crew will deactivate the experiment, and remove experiment power.
The Get Away Special (GAS) Program was designed by NASA to provide a cheap way for educational institutions to place a payload on the Space Shuttle. The program allows educational institutions to develop a payload that is under 200 pounds and fits in the NASA manufactured 5 cubic foot GAS canister. Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, MD) manages the program.
The following eleven experiments will be flying on STS-88 as part of NASA’s Space Experiment Module program which is managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The SEM program is an educational initiative to increase student access to space. Kindergarten through University students can participate.
Eight of the eleven experiments were provided by teachers and their schools, participating in the NASA Educational Workshop for Mathematics, Science and Technology (NEWMAST) Program.
"Mariposa Express" NEWMAST: Lyme (VT) School (K-8 grade) and Thomas J. Quirk Middle School (7-8 grade) Hartford, CT.
The purpose of the experiment is to compare the growth of butterfly garden seeds exposed to the space environment to ground control samples. Samples will be measured and the students will perform statistical analysis on data collected.
"SNAP-CRACKLE-POP" NEWMAST: Norwood (Mass.) Jr. High School; Thayer Academy, Braintree, MA; Dennis-Yarmouth Regional High School, South Yarmouth, MA.; and Woodstock (CT) Academy.
There are three passive experiments contained within the module. Experiment #1 will study the volume and porousness of bread baked with dry, inactive yeast when exposed to the space environment. The second experiment will study the effects of the launch and space environment on the longevity and intensity of light bulbs. The third experiment will examine the appearance, weight, volume and popping time of different types of popcorn that has been exposed to the space environment.
"A Nutty Idea" NEWMAST: F. H. Tuttle Middle School, South Burlington, VT and The Gilbert School, Winsted, CT
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effects of microgravity and temperature extremes on various brands of peanut butter. Students will microscopically examine, measure viscosity, and conduct qualitative visual, spreadability, and aroma tests on the samples before and after flight.
"Bubble Lab Adds Science and Technology (BLAST)"and "Silly Putty Longevity and Applicability Testing (SPLAT)" NEWMAST: Oakcrest High School, Mays Landing, NJ and William Penn High School, York, PA
The module will contain two passive experiments. The first experiment, BLAST, will examine the effects of the launch and space environment on the longevity, size and quantity bubbles. The other experiment, SPLAT, will study the effects of the space environment on physical characteristics such as texture and composition, elasticity, image transfer capability, and bounceability of silly putty.
"Maine's Agricultural Industry NEWMAST Experiment (MAINE)" NEWMAST: Maine School Administration District 54; Brewer School District and Maine Indian Education
Experiment #1 of 2 passive experiments will study the effect of the space environment (microgravity, radiation, and extreme temperatures) on the germination and growth of pine tree seeds. The other experiment will examine water samples for standard quality test parameters such as pH, hardness, dissolved oxygen levels and carbon dioxide levels.
"Growing Mold Together" H.E.L.P. (Horntown (VA) Educational Learning Project)
The purpose of this experiment is to study mold growth on common fresh foods exposed to the space environment versus those on Earth. Eleven vials will contain food initially contaminated with mold, and the other eleven vials will contain fresh foods.
"Effects of Space Travel on Soil Micro-Structure: Redistribution of Mineral Species and Organics" Accomack County Schools TAG (K-3) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary Wachapreague, VA
Students in grades 1-3 will seek to determine the effect of space travel on soil micros-structure by investigating the redistribution of minerals and organic matter in constructed soils. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the impact of variable "gravity" forces and the space environment on the structure of soils, and the implications which that might have for horticulture in space.
"Space Science and Technology Collaboration" NEWMAST: Spartanburg (SC) High School, and North Greene High School, Greeneville, TN
This module contains two passive experiments. The first experiment will contain solar voltaic cells to investigate available solar energy . The second experiment will contain vials of sand representative of all 24 NEWMAST teachers and their students. Students will study sand composition, density and magnetic properties of sand before and after flight.
"SHARP Experiments" NASA Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP) NASA Space Scholars Club
Students participating in the SHARP Program at Wallops Flight Facility, (Wallops Island, VA) will submit different samples from which to study the effect of space environment. Experiments include water based paint, gelatin, chlorophyll, magnets, seeds, film and computer disks.
"Effects of Space Travel on 22 ALNICO Cylindrical Magnets" NEWMAST: Harbor Creek High School (7-12), Harbor Creek Pennsylvania and Arsenal Middle School (6-8), Pittsburgh, PA
This experiment will study the effect of the Earth's magnetic field and the space environment on 11 vials of Alnico magnets. The students will examine the magnetic field shape and strength.
"Getting to the Heart of the Matter" NEWMAST: Betsy Ross Arts Magnet School, New Haven, CT; Woodland High School, Long Island, NY; Saugerties (NY) High School; Bethpage (NY) High School; Elizabethport (NJ) Catholic School; Glen Ridge (NJ) High School; and Neptune (NJ) Middle School.
This experiment has been created to observe the effect of the space environment on the behavior and density of various liquids. A density column experiment will be performed on four different liquids (corn oil, tinted blue water, glycerin and brown corn syrup). Mass, volume, and calculated densities will be compared before and after flight. A second experiment with vials containing water and delrin beads will perform a vertical sorting experiment.
The SEM-07 utilizes a standard 5 cubic-foot GAS canister with a Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-provided internal support structure, battery, power distribution system, data sampling and storage devices, and harness. It will be mounted on an SSP/JSC-provided adaptor beam in Bay 13, port side, forward position. SEM-07 will be PASSIVE. There will be no batteries or power supplied by the Orbiter.
NASA began the Space Experiment Module (SEM) program in 1995 as an offshoot of the Getaway Special program, managed by the Shuttle Small Payloads Project at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Since 1982, GAS canisters had flown on the shuttle, offering economic access to space to a broader array of experimenters, particularly students. But participation was still somewhat limited by the high-level engineering skills required to design GAS experiments.
In 1995, the program directors started SEM to relieve students of the engineering burden and let them concentrate on creating their experiments. Since the module is equipped with electrical power, there is no need to engineer and build battery boxes, etc. Students of all ages can create, design, and build experiments with a little help from teachers or mentors. The experiments--which can be simple or complicated, active or passive--are placed in half-moon-shaped SEMs, ten of which are then stacked in a GAS canister. References: 4 , 7 .