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Spacecraft: Potok.

Potok was one element of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) developed according to a decree of 17 February 1976. The first of ten spacecraft was launched as Cosmos 1366 in 1982. These satellites were integrated with the Luch geostationary system and featured retransmission of high rate data retransmission in the centimetre wavelength range. While Luch handled communications between spacecraft and ground stations, Potok handled communications between fixed points and digital data from the Yantar-4KS1 electroptical reconnaissance satellite. Potok was the first communications spacecraft built by the Lavochkin design bureau and used the Splav-2 transponder by NPO Elas.

Potok is said by one account to have utilized the KAUR-4 spacecraft bus. This had an active 3-axis orientation system, with a single central body from which extended 40 square metres of solar panels. Its basic structure was that of the KAUR-3, but it was equipped with completely new systems: a digital computer, plasma station-keeping engines, hydrazine monopropellant orientation engines, and actively-scanned antennae arrays with 0.5 degrees antenna and 0.1 degree spacecraft pointing accuracy.


Spacecraft: Luch.

Luch was an element of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) developed according to a decree of 17 February 1976 and deployed in the first half of the 1980's. Luch satellites, analogous to the US TDRS, provided communications service to the Mir space station, Buran space shuttle, Soyuz-TM spacecraft, military satellites, and the TsUPK ground control center. They also served to provide mobile fleet communications for the Soviet Navy. Modifications of the basic design were known as Altair, Gelios, and Luch. The modernised Luch-2 model allowed two high data rate channels to operate simulatneously, permitting transmission of real-time television from Mir. Each satellite was equipped with three transponders and had a nominal life of five years. By January 1999 five had been launched.

Luch utilized the KAUR-4 spacecraft bus equipped with the Arion transponder by NPO Radiopribor (Ryazanskiy). The spacecraft had an active 3-axis orientation system, with a single central body from which extended 40 square metres of solar panels. Its basic structure was that of the KAUR-3, but it was equipped with completely new systems: a digital computer, plasma station-keeping engines, hydrazine monopropellant orientation engines, and actively-scanned antennae arrays with 0.5 degrees antenna and 0.1 degree spacecraft pointing accuracy.


Spacecraft: Forpost. Communications satellite - MoD

Spacecraft: Ekspress. Communications satellite - geosynchronous. Ekspress will gradually replace Gorizont series.

Spacecraft: Gals. Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation.

Spacecraft: Yamal.

The Yamal satellites were built for AO Gazcom of Moscow, a joint venture of RKKE and RAO Gazprom, the Russian natural gas monopoly. The Yamal- satellites had a communications payload of 12 C-band transponders built by Space Systems/Loral and were equipped with Fakel SPD-70 plasma thrusters for inclination control.


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Last update 28 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .