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Zenit 2
Zenit 2 - Zenit-2. Later improved version Zenit-2M commonly had a Nauka module mounted on the forward end of the sphere.

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Article Number: 11F61. Code Name: Zenit-2. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: OKB-1.

The Zenit spacecraft had its origins before Sputnik. In 1956, the Soviet military identified a requirement for a photo-reconnaissance satellite (see Zenit). Sergei Korolev, flushed after the success of Sputnik, instead advocated that manned spaceflight should have first priority. After bitter disputes, a compromise solution was reached. Korolev was authorised to proceed with development of a spacecraft to achieve manned flights at the earliest possible date. However the design would be such that the same spacecraft could be used to fulfil the military's unmanned photo reconnaissance satellite requirement. A series of 1K prototypes would prove the essential design; the 2K and 4K versions would be unmanned spy satellites, and the 3K the manned spaceship. The military resisted, but in November 1958 Korolev won, and the Council of Chief designers approved the Vostok manned space program, in combination with Zenit spy satellite program.

Development work was begun in May 1959. Project leader was Ryazanov until 1961; thereafter Tsybin. Section heads were Yu M Frumkin for the spacecraft and Ts V Solovyov for the communications. The agreed technical specifications for the 2K satellite (given the code name Zenit-2) were for a photo apparatus with a focal length of not less than a meter, limited only by the size of the spacecraft itself. Electronics were to include secure radio systems that would only transmit and receive data when the spacecraft was over the territory of the USSR. These included transmission of photo-television images and receipt of secure command and programming data.

There were many difficult problems during development. The requirement for 10-15 m camera resolution from 200-400 km altitude and a speed of 8,000 m/s meant that a motion compensation system was needed. Pointing requirements were very demanding, resulting in the first Soviet use of a gyroscopic platform, infrared horizon sensors, and integration of the sensors into an automated orientation system. Technical challenges existed not just in the spacecraft but in the ground control center, which had to generate spacecraft command sequences. This was the first development of an on0board system to execute complex commands from the ground. The spacecraft optics required that internal temperatures be kept within 1 degree Centigrade, and that temperature variations be no more than 0.1 degrees/hour. Since the spacecraft was normally oriented to the sun, an active thermal regulation system was needed.

The Vostok and Zenit satellites differed from each other as follows:

The spherical SA descent capsule contained all of the specialised classified apparatus (the camera, the photo-television, the radio apparatus). The Zenit camera was mounted perpendicular to the long axis of the spacecraft. Exposures were made through multiple lens cameras, shooting through one of two large diameter hatches.

The first Zenits were fitted out with the SA-20 camera, with a focal length of 1 meter, the SA-10 camera, with a focal length of 0.2 m, the Baikal photo-television device, and the Kust-12M ELINT radio apparatus (developed by M E Zaslavskiy). Baikal was installed in Zenit serial numbers 1, 2, 3,4, 7 and 8. However after four successful trial flights (Cosmos 4, 7, 9, and 15) it became clear that the Baikal did not live up to its expected specifications (the United States had a similar experience with its early electro-optical systems on the Samos series). Subsequent Zenits dropped the Baikal and used the Ftor-2P, which combined the SA-20 and SA-10 cameras and the Kust-12M ELINT apparatus into a single system. The Ftor-2P was designed to photograph, from altitudes of 180 to 200 km, 1500 frames of film, each frame covering a 60 x 60 km area, for a total coverage per mission of 5.4 million square kilometres. The system could not only take photographs at the nadir but also at oblique angles to the side of the flight path. Yu V Ryabushkin of the Krasnogorsk Mechanical Factory was chief designer of the camera.

Zenits from the beginning carried small supplemental experimental packages, for example meteoroid or cosmic particle detectors. On Zenit number 80 the Nauka autonomous sub-satellite was flown. The Nauka containers served a dual purpose. Mounted on the forward end of the re-entry sphere, they provided ballast on the spacecraft during its mission. When the Zenit had completed its work, the Nauka would be released for autonomous flight. Over 40 Nauka containers were installed on Zenit-2 and Zenit-2M spacecraft, and they achieved noteworthy results in scientific and military space research.


Soviet ReconnsatsSoviet Reconnsats - Soviet reconnaissance satellites. Top row: Zenit-2, Zenit-4, Advanced Zenit with aerodynamic orientation; Middle Row: Yantar 1K, Yantar 2K, Orlets-1 with multiple return capsules; bottom row, Buran-serviced pallet-based satellite; Yantar 4KS electrooptical

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Flight trials (LKI) Zenit-2s had a mass of 4,610 to 4,760 kg, and production models ranged from 4,700 to 4,740 kg.

Five prototype Vostok 1K spacecraft were launched in May to December 1960; only one of the flights was completely successful. These were followed two entirely successful Vostok 3KA launches in March 1961. The third Vostok 3KA, on 12 April 1961, put the first human into space. This was followed by Gherman Titovís day-long flight in August of the same year.

Focus now turned to testing of the 2K spacecraft, code named Zenit-2. A modification of the 8K72 three-stage launch vehicle, the 8A92, was developed for Zenit. The first launch on 11 December 1961 was a failure, due to a fault in the third stage.

The first flight trials Zenit-2 was launched on 11 December 1961. However the launch ended in failure of the launch vehicle upon ignition of the third stage. The spacecraft APO destruct system at least proved its operation by detecting the shut down and automatically destroying the spacecraft.

The second Zenit-2 successful reached orbit on 26 April 1962, officially being designated Cosmos 4. However leaks from the oxygen system tanks used for the orientation system resulted in the premature return of the spacecraft after three days of flight. During most of the flight the spacecraft was uncontrollable, although the photographic material returned could be used to determine the performance of the Baikal and SA-10 systems. In all 13 LKI trials launches were made of Zenit-2, three of which ended in failure of the launch vehicle. Each flight was used methodically to test all systms, verify guidance commands, etc. Lessons learned were applied to the modernized spacecraft, which had improved cameras, on-board systems, and autonomous guidance methods. The ineffective television system was deleted.

Zenit-2 number 14 began the production flights of the spacecraft. Production and design responsibility was moved at that point from Korolevís main OKB-1 facility near Moscow to OKB-1 Filial No.3 in Samara, headed by D I Kozlov. Later Kozlov was also given responsibility for the R-7 ICBM and its space-launch derivatives. Filial No. 3 was made a separate organisation, the TsKB Central Specialised Construction Bureau, which incorporated the Progress production factory in Samara. The TsKB to this day has been the leading supplier to the Soviet military of imaging spacecraft, all of them using Soyuz launch vehicles produced at the same factory.

The first two Zenits were launched by the same 8K72K launcher used for the Vostok manned spacecraft. The rest, from 1962 to 1967, used productionised Vostok 8A92 launchers. The Zenit-2, given article number 11F61, and the 8A92 launchers, were adopted as armament of the Soviet Army on 10 March 1964 by decree of the Defence Ministry of the USSR number 0045.

From 1967 launch of most Zenit-2ís was moved to the northern Plesetsk cosmodrome. To reach the higher-inclination orbits required use of a more powerful launch vehicle, the Soyuz 11A57. Decree no 0015 of 1967 amended the earlier decree to add to the Zenit-2 complex the 11A57 and the newer APO-4B destruct system.

From 1968 flights gradually transitioned to the modernised spacecraft Zenit-2M. The last launch of a Zenit-2 was on 12 May 1970. In all, including the state trials launches, 81 Zenit-2ís were launched, of which 7 were lost on launch vehicle failures. Of the 74 that reached orbit, 13 had only partially successful missions due to various equipment failures; three were complete failures, with the spacecraft being destroyed. Notable Zenit flights included:

Typical orbital profile: inclination 65 degrees with an altitude of 197-318 km; inclination 51.8 degrees with an altitude of 200-272 km; inclination 72.8 degrees with an altitude of 203-337 km; inclination 81.3 degrees with an altitude of 201-368 km. Transmission frequencies observed in West: 19.995 PDM; sometimes 19.990 PDM.


Specification

Total Mass: 4,720 kg.


Zenit-2 Chronology


01 March 1957 Soviet reconnaisance system designs continue

Studies were undertaken for military reconnaissance satellites. Code names for these studies were: Shchit - military reconnaissance systems; Osnova - military reconnaissance equipment; Ediniy KIK - military reconnaissance control systems.


01 November 1958 Vostok spacecraft and Zenit spy satellite authorised.

Council of Chief Designers Decree 'On course of work on the piloted spaceship' was issued. Council of Chief designers approved the Vostok manned space program, in combination with Zenit spy satellite program Korolev was authorised to proceed with development of a spacecraft to achieve manned flights at the earliest possible date. However the design would be such that the same spacecraft could be used to fulfil the military's unmanned photo reconnaissance satellite requirement. The military resisted, but Korolev won. This was formalised in a decree of 25 May 1959.



Zenit 2 ReconnsatZenit 2 Reconnsat

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22 May 1959 Vostok / Zenit-3 decree issued.

Due to a bitter fight with the military over the nature and priority of the manned spacecraft and photo-reconnaissance space programs, the final decree for the Vostok manned spacecraft was delayed until seven months after drawing release began. This authorised production of a single design that could be used either as a manned spacecraft or as a military reconnaissance satellite. These were the Zenit-2 and Zenit-4 spacecraft based on the Vostok design. This marked the end of the original Zenit configuration.


11 December 1961 Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. FAILURE: RO-7 engine of block E upper stage cutoff prematurely. Spacecraft liquidated by self destruct system APO in 407th second of flight. Debris landed 100 km north of Vilyuisk. Mass: 4,610 kg.

First attempted launch of Zenit photo-reconnaisance satellite.


26 April 1962 Cosmos 4 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K. Mass: 4,610 kg. Perigee: 285 km. Apogee: 317 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 3.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Failure of primary spacecraft orientation system.


01 June 1962 Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 3 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. FAILURE: Shutdown of Block B strap-on engine stage 1.8 seconds after liftoff. The booster crashed 300 m from the pad. Pad damaged. Mass: 4,610 kg.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Third attempted launch of Zenit photo-reconnaissance satellite.


28 July 1962 Cosmos 7 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,610 kg. Perigee: 197 km. Apogee: 356 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 4.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements.


27 September 1962 Cosmos 9 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,700 kg. Perigee: 829 km. Apogee: 981 km. Inclination: 67.6 deg. Duration: 4.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements.


17 October 1962 Cosmos 10 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,700 kg. Perigee: 178 km. Apogee: 376 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 4.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements.


22 December 1962 Cosmos 12 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,700 kg. Perigee: 202 km. Apogee: 385 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements.


21 March 1963 Cosmos 13 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,700 kg. Perigee: 214 km. Apogee: 303 km. Inclination: 65.2 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements.


22 April 1963 Cosmos 15 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 194 km. Apogee: 336 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 5.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried weather, radiation experiments.


28 April 1963 Cosmos 16 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 201 km. Apogee: 379 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg. Duration: 10.00 days.

Program partially completed. Part of the information lost due to failure of engine block stabilization system. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements.


24 May 1963 Cosmos 18 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 212 km. Apogee: 269 km. Inclination: 64.6 deg. Duration: 9.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements.


10 July 1963 Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 12 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. FAILURE: Shutdown of Block B strap-on engine stage 1.9 seconds after liftoff. Pad damaged. Mass: 4,720 kg.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


18 October 1963 Cosmos 20 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 201 km. Apogee: 296 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.


Zenit Optical PathsZenit Optical Paths

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Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.
28 November 1963 Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 14 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. FAILURE: Failure of block E upper stage. Spacecraft liquidated by APO destruct system. Mass: 4,720 kg.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


19 December 1963 Cosmos 24 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 204 km. Apogee: 391 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 9.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


10 March 1964 Zenit-2 spy satellite accepted into mlitary service Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.

Defence Ministry of the USSR decree 0045 'On adopting the Zenit-2 satellite launched on the 8A92 into armaments' was issued.


04 April 1964 Cosmos 28 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 213 km. Apogee: 373 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


25 April 1964 Cosmos 29 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 203 km. Apogee: 292 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 7.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


10 June 1964 Cosmos 32 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 205 km. Apogee: 322 km. Inclination: 51.3 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


23 June 1964 Cosmos 33 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 205 km. Apogee: 279 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


15 July 1964 Cosmos 35 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 218 km. Apogee: 258 km. Inclination: 51.3 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


14 August 1964 Cosmos 37 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 208 km. Apogee: 240 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Break in the film fof the SA-10 camera.


24 September 1964 Cosmos 46 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 211 km. Apogee: 264 km. Inclination: 51.3 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


14 October 1964 Cosmos 48 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 204 km. Apogee: 284 km. Inclination: 65.1 deg. Duration: 6.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Returned early due to failure of spacecraft thermoregulation system; internal temperature rose to 43 degrees C.


28 October 1964 Cosmos 50 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 190 km. Apogee: 232 km. Inclination: 51.2 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Failure of the braking engine system. Spacecraft ordered to self destruct.


11 January 1965 Cosmos 52 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 203 km. Apogee: 298 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


25 March 1965 Cosmos 64 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 205 km. Apogee: 250 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


07 May 1965 Cosmos 66 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 285 km. Apogee: 397 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Returned after 8 days. Unsuccessful mission. Parachute deployment failure. Spacecraft destroyed in crash.


15 June 1965 Cosmos 68 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 208 km. Apogee: 306 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.


Zenit AerosurfaceZenit Aerosurface - Zenit Reconnaisance satellite with aerodynamic control services for orientation in orbit.

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Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.
13 July 1965 Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 28 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. FAILURE: Second stage guidance failure. Mass: 4,720 kg.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


14 August 1965 Cosmos 78 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 330 km. Apogee: 379 km. Inclination: 69.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


27 November 1965 Cosmos 98 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 205 km. Apogee: 547 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


10 December 1965 Cosmos 99 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 203 km. Apogee: 309 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


07 January 1966 Cosmos 104 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 195 km. Apogee: 379 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program not completely met. Spacecraft put into incorrect orbit by abnormal function of second and third stages of booster.


22 January 1966 Cosmos 105 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 203 km. Apogee: 311 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


10 February 1966 Cosmos 107 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 216 km. Apogee: 313 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


17 March 1966 Cosmos 112 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 214 km. Apogee: 664 km. Inclination: 72.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


20 April 1966 Cosmos 115 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 189 km. Apogee: 283 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

. Program partially completed. Abnormal operation of SA-10 camera.


06 May 1966 Cosmos 117 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 200 km. Apogee: 314 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


08 June 1966 Cosmos 120 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 201 km. Apogee: 331 km. Inclination: 51.7 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


14 July 1966 Cosmos 124 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 205 km. Apogee: 282 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


16 September 1966 Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 40 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. FAILURE: Launch vehicle destroyed. Failure of Block D core stage. Mass: 4,720 kg.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


14 October 1966 Cosmos 129 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 199 km. Apogee: 288 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 7.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


19 November 1966 Cosmos 132 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 202 km. Apogee: 257 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


19 December 1966 Cosmos 136 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 197 km. Apogee: 281 km. Inclination: 64.6 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried science package.


01 January 1967 Zenit-2 spysat moved to more powerful Voskhod launcher. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.

Ministry of Defence Decree 15 'On transfer of Zenit-2 from the 8A92 to the 11A57 launcher' was issued.


19 January 1967 Cosmos 138 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 190 km. Apogee: 273 km. Inclination: 64.6 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


27 February 1967 Cosmos 143 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 202 km. Apogee: 390 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Placed into orbit with 22.8 second period different from that planned. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also carried science package.


13 March 1967 Cosmos 147 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 195 km. Apogee: 298 km. Inclination: 64.5 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed.


04 April 1967 Cosmos 153 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 199 km. Apogee: 279 km. Inclination: 64.6 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Failure of primary SA-20 camera.


12 May 1967 Cosmos 157 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 249 km. Apogee: 262 km. Inclination: 51.3 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Program partially completed. Bad quality film loaded into SA-20 camera.


08 June 1967 Cosmos 164 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 185 km. Apogee: 317 km. Inclination: 65.6 deg. Duration: 6.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


04 July 1967 Cosmos 168 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 223 km. Apogee: 230 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


01 September 1967 Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 51 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure of Block I stage at 296 seconds. Remnants of spacecraft and stage fell near Novaya Zemlya. Mass: 4,720 kg.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


16 September 1967 Cosmos 177 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 201 km. Apogee: 267 km. Inclination: 51.7 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


26 September 1967 Cosmos 180 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 206 km. Apogee: 350 km. Inclination: 72.8 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


11 October 1967 Cosmos 181 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 198 km. Apogee: 325 km. Inclination: 65.6 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


25 November 1967 Cosmos 193 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 745 km. Apogee: 756 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


16 December 1967 Cosmos 195 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 204 km. Apogee: 352 km. Inclination: 65.6 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


16 January 1968 Cosmos 199 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 206 km. Apogee: 363 km. Inclination: 65.6 deg. Duration: 16.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Spacecraft failed to separate from Block I stage. Attempt was made to conduct mission without orientation system. APO self destruct system destroyed spacecraft on 126th revolution over Sea of Okhotsk. First generation, low resolution photo surveillance; recovery probably failed.


05 March 1968 Cosmos 205 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 197 km. Apogee: 293 km. Inclination: 65.7 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


03 April 1968 Cosmos 210 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 200 km. Apogee: 373 km. Inclination: 81.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


20 April 1968 Cosmos 216 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 198 km. Apogee: 267 km. Inclination: 51.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Spacecraft landed in River Volga 1 km from shore and sank after 42 minutes. 85% of the data was ruined.


01 June 1968 Cosmos 223 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 221 km. Apogee: 317 km. Inclination: 72.9 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


10 July 1968 Cosmos 231 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 206 km. Apogee: 311 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


09 August 1968 Cosmos 235 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 201 km. Apogee: 281 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Partially successful. Hard landing due to parachute sytem failure. 30% of the film damaged.


14 September 1968 Cosmos 240 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 203 km. Apogee: 283 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 7.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


11 October 1968 Cosmos 247 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 199 km. Apogee: 345 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


13 November 1968 Cosmos 253 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 216 km. Apogee: 337 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 5.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. On 13th orbit the SA-20-1 camera's shutter responded to an uncommanded order to open. Radiation levels inside reached 3 times normal levels. 53% of the data was lost.


29 November 1968 Cosmos 255 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 197 km. Apogee: 317 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


10 December 1968 Cosmos 258 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 205 km. Apogee: 298 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


12 January 1969 Cosmos 263 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 200 km. Apogee: 325 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


25 February 1969 Cosmos 266 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 202 km. Apogee: 336 km. Inclination: 72.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


22 March 1969 Cosmos 273 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 200 km. Apogee: 336 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


09 April 1969 Cosmos 278 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 198 km. Apogee: 310 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


13 May 1969 Cosmos 281 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 191 km. Apogee: 303 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


24 June 1969 Cosmos 287 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 189 km. Apogee: 265 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


22 July 1969 Cosmos 290 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 195 km. Apogee: 332 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


24 September 1969 Cosmos 301 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 203 km. Apogee: 271 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


12 November 1969 Cosmos 309 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 185 km. Apogee: 364 km. Inclination: 64.5 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. First flight with Nauka external experiment container.


04 March 1970 Cosmos 325 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 200 km. Apogee: 327 km. Inclination: 65.4 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


13 March 1970 Cosmos 326 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 208 km. Apogee: 232 km. Inclination: 81.3 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite.


12 May 1970 Cosmos 344 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 4,720 kg. Perigee: 204 km. Apogee: 326 km. Inclination: 72.9 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Partially successful. Failure of SA-10B camera on 42nd orbit.



Bibliography:



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .