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Yantar E1
Yantar E1

Credit: Carsten Wiedemann. 31,641 bytes. 473 x 307 pixels.


Article Number: 11F694. Code Name: Terilen. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: TsKB.

The Yantar-2K was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. Therefore three additional variants were developed, one of them the detailed electro-optical and operational reconnaissance satellite Yantar-4KS. A resolution of the chief designers dated 1 July 1977 began work on the project; this was confirmed by decree # 7-3 of the Soviet Ministers and Communist Party Central Committee dated 4 January 1978. The spacecraft was designed to relay visual and infrared band images via a digital data link to the planned Potok-Luch GKRSS satellite system.

There were two phases to the project plan. The first phase spacecraft, the Yantar-4KS1, would be launched by the Soyuz-U2 launch vehicle, begin flight trials in 1979, with the system to be accepted into the military by 1981. Phase 2 would be the more capable Yantar-4KS2, launched by the more powerful Zenit launch vehicle, with flight trials to begin in 1983.

Development was slow because of the state of Soviet digital electronics technology. The structure and wire harnesses for the first spacecraft were completed in 1978, but delays in the electronics meant that flight trials could not begin until the end of 1982. But the very first trials flight, in conjunction with the first Potok communications relay satellite, proved the worth of the system, with immediate operational use of the imagery. Yantar-4KS1 was accepted into military service in 1985.

On 1 June 1983 the Yantar-4KS2 was cancelled and it was decided to modernise the Yantar-4KS1 instead. Flight trials of the improved model began in 1986, with flight times of 238 and 259 days, versus the maximum 207 days of the unimproved version. Further changes were an evolutionary process, with each satellite flown having improved technical characteristics and longer service life. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the satellites were being operated for over a year before having their mission terminated, despite a switch from the Soyuz-U2 to the less capable Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Typical orbital profile of the satellites was: inclination 64.9 degrees with an altitude of 230-280 km or 180-270 km.


Specification

Total Mass: 6,620 kg.


Yantar-4KS1 Chronology


01 May 1977 Council of Chief Designers reconsiders Yantar Soviet reconnsat designs

Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The planned Yantar-6K series, in development since 1969, were overweight and behind schedule. A meeting of the Council of Chief Designers at TsSKB reviewed alternative approaches. It was decided that three variants of the Yantar-2K were to be developed, one of them the high resolution Yantar-4K.


26 December 1982 Cosmos 1426 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 200 km. Apogee: 384 km. Inclination: 50.6 deg. Duration: 69.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


14 May 1984 Cosmos 1552 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 180 km. Apogee: 320 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 173.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


25 March 1985 Cosmos 1643 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 182 km. Apogee: 276 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg. Duration: 207.00 days.


Yantar 4KSYantar 4KS

12,418 bytes. 362 x 349 pixels.


Photo/digital surveillance.
07 February 1986 Cosmos 1731 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 233 km. Apogee: 263 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg. Duration: 238.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


06 August 1986 Cosmos 1770 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 234 km. Apogee: 292 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg. Duration: 180.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


26 December 1986 Cosmos 1810 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 224 km. Apogee: 275 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg. Duration: 259.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


16 April 1987 Cosmos 1836 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 236 km. Apogee: 289 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg. Duration: 230.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


11 September 1987 Cosmos 1881 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 228 km. Apogee: 294 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg. Duration: 201.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


30 March 1988 Cosmos 1936 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 182 km. Apogee: 266 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg. Duration: 49.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


09 July 1988 Yantar-4KS1 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. FAILURE: Failure.
11 November 1988 Yantar-4KS1 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. FAILURE: Failure.
23 March 1989 Cosmos 2007 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 224 km. Apogee: 262 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg. Duration: 180.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


17 November 1989 Cosmos 2049 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 232 km. Apogee: 251 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg. Duration: 214.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


11 April 1990 Cosmos 2072 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 232 km. Apogee: 270 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg. Duration: 225.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


21 December 1990 Cosmos 2113 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 225 km. Apogee: 261 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg. Duration: 172.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


10 July 1991 Cosmos 2153 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 182 km. Apogee: 267 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 247.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


08 April 1992 Cosmos 2183 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 237 km. Apogee: 289 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 314.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


09 December 1992 Cosmos 2223 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 238 km. Apogee: 271 km. Inclination: 64.6 deg. Duration: 372.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


05 November 1993 Cosmos 2267 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 228 km. Apogee: 281 km. Inclination: 70.4 deg. Duration: 418.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


28 April 1994 Cosmos 2280 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 233 km. Apogee: 283 km. Inclination: 70.4 deg. Duration: 316.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


29 December 1994 Cosmos 2305 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. Mass: 6,600 kg. Perigee: 231 km. Apogee: 288 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 354.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


29 September 1995 Cosmos 2320 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 7,000 kg. Perigee: 235 km. Apogee: 372 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg. Duration: 365.00 days.

Photo/digital surveillance.


25 June 1998 Cosmos 2359 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Perigee: 239 km. Apogee: 300 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg.

Photo/digital surveillance. Entered an initial 170 x 290 km x 64.9 deg initial orbit. It manoeuvred to its operational orbit of 240 x 302 km x 64.9 deg on June 27.


03 May 2000 Cosmos 2370 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Perigee: 244 km. Apogee: 312 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg.

Advanced imaging reconnaissance satellite. Relays digital imagery to earth via geostationary comsats. The last such satellite, Cosmos 2359, reentered in July 1999 after one year in orbit. The Soyuz-U launcher placed it in a 183 x 277 km x 64.8 deg initial orbit; it raised altitude to 240 x 300 km about 24 hr after launch.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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