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astronautix.com Voskhod 3KV

Interior of Voskhod
Interior of Voskhod
Interior of Voskhod 1

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Manufacturer's Designation: 3KV. Class: Manned. Type: Spacecraft. Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: OKB-1.

The Voskhods were adaptations of the single place Vostok spacecraft meant to conduct flights with up to three crew and for space walks in advance of US Gemini program. Work on the 3KV (three crew) and 3KD (two crew plus inflatable airlock) versions of the basic Vostok spacecraft began with the decree issued on 13 April 1964. In order to accommodate more than one crew, the seats were mounted perpendicular to the Vostok ejection seat position, so the crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. The Elburs soft landing system replaced the ejection seat and allowed the crew to stay in the capsule. It consisted of probes that dangled from the parachute lines. Contact with the earth triggered a solid rocket engine in the parachute which resulted in a zero velocity landing.

The airlock of the two-crew 3KD version weighed 250 kg and was 700 mm in diameter and 770 mm high when stowed for launch. When inflated in orbit, it was 2.5 m long, with an internal diameter of 1.0 m and external diameter of 1.2 m.

The heavier Voskhods were launched by the 11A57 launch vehicle with a much larger third stage than that used for the Vostoks. This allowed installation of a backup solid propellant retrorocket package on the nose of the spacecraft.


Specification

Craft.Crew Size: 3. Design Life: 14 days. Total Length: 5.0 m. Maximum Diameter: 2.4 m. Total Mass: 5,682 kg. Electrical System: Batteries.



Voskhod 3 InteriorVoskhod 3 Interior

Credit: © Mark Wade. 57,604 bytes. 562 x 382 pixels.


Voskhod 3KV Chronology


13 March 1964 Voskhod spacecraft approved.

Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 59 'On approval of work to convert Vostok to Voskhod and use it for three-person space missions' was issued.


13 April 1964 Construction of nine Voskhod spacecraft approved.

Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On approval of work on four Voskhods and five EVA-equipped Vykhods' was issued. Work on the 3KV (three crew) and 3KD (two crew plus inflatable airlock) versions of the basic Vostok spacecraft began.


14 June 1964 Voskhod development approved.

Decree 'On approval of work on Voskhod and Vykhod' was issued.


03 August 1964 Voskhod state commission formed.

Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On formation of the State Commission for Voskhod' was issued.


06 October 1964 Cosmos 47 Program: Voskhod. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 5,320 kg. Perigee: 174 km. Apogee: 383 km. Inclination: 64.6 deg. Duration: 1.01 days.

Recovered October 7, 1964 7:28 GMT. Voskhod 1 test.
Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


12 October 1964 Voskhod 1 Program: Voskhod. Flight Crew: Feoktistov, Komarov, Yegorov. Manned flight: Voskhod 1. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 5,320 kg. Perigee: 178 km. Apogee: 336 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg. Duration: 1.01 days.


VoskhodVoskhod

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The U.S.S.R. launched the world's first multi-manned spacecraft, Voskhod I, the first to carry a scientist and a physician into space. The crew were Col. Vladimir Komarov, pilot; Konstantin Feoktistov, scientist; and Boris Yegorov, physician. Potentially dangerous modification of Vostok to upstage American Gemini flights; no spacesuits, ejection seats, or escape tower. One concession was backup solid retrorocket package mounted on nose of spacecraft. Seats mounted perpendicular to Vostok ejection seat position, so crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. Tested the new multi-seat space ship; investigated the in-flight work potential and co-operation of a group of cosmonauts consisting of specialists in different branches of science and technology; conducted scientific physico-technical and medico-biological research. The mission featured television pictures of the crew from space.

Land recovery made possible by rocket package suspended above capsule in parachute lines, which ignited just prior to impact in order to cushion landing. The trio landed after 16 orbits of the earth, 24 hours and 17 min after they had left, on October 13, 1964 7:47 GMT.

Coming before the two-man Gemini flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant worldwide impact. In the United States, the "space race" was again running under the green flag. NASA Administrator James E. Webb, commenting on the spectacular, called it a "significant space accomplishment." It was, he said, "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige." Additional Details: Voskhod 1.


01 August 1965 Development of military versions of Voskhod and Soyuz approved.

Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On creation of military Voskhod and Soyuz spacecraft' was issued.


22 February 1966 Cosmos 110 Program: Voskhod. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. Mass: 5,700 kg. Perigee: 181 km. Apogee: 887 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 20.69 days.

Successfully recovered March 15, 1966 13:00 GMT. Biosat using Voskhod 3 hardware. 2 dogs carried into lower Van Allen radiation belts.
Officially: Biological research.


01 June 1966 Voskhod 3 Program: Voskhod. Flight Crew: Shonin, Volynov.

Planned duration 19 days. Biological endurance mission cancelled after near-disaster with Voskhod 2. Initial Orbit was to have been 175 km X 500 km at 65 deg. Follow-on missions with journalist, physician, and all-female crews also cancelled. Original Prime Crew was Katys, Volynov; Backup Crew: Beregovoi, Demin; Support Crew: Artyukhin, Shatalov. These assignments were reshuffled to those shown when Katys had to be dropped from the prime crew.


01 September 1966 Voskhod 4 Program: Voskhod. Flight Crew: Beregovoi, Katys.

Planned second long-duration 20 day Voskhod flight. Cancelled in spring 1966 after near-disaster with Voskhod 2 and death of Korolev. A follow-on Voskhod 3V s/n 7 mission was also planned that would have conducted an artificial gravity experiment, unreeling a tether between the Voskhod spacecraft and the Block I final rocket stage.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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