|Interior of Voskhod |
Interior of Voskhod 1
Credit: © Mark Wade. 45,763 bytes. 582 x 363 pixels.
The Voskhods were adaptations of the single place Vostok spacecraft meant to conduct flights with up to three crew and for space walks in advance of US Gemini program. Work on the 3KV (three crew) and 3KD (two crew plus inflatable airlock) versions of the basic Vostok spacecraft began with the decree issued on 13 April 1964. In order to accommodate more than one crew, the seats were mounted perpendicular to the Vostok ejection seat position, so the crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. The Elburs soft landing system replaced the ejection seat and allowed the crew to stay in the capsule. It consisted of probes that dangled from the parachute lines. Contact with the earth triggered a solid rocket engine in the parachute which resulted in a zero velocity landing.
The airlock of the two-crew 3KD version weighed 250 kg and was 700 mm in diameter and 770 mm high when stowed for launch. When inflated in orbit, it was 2.5 m long, with an internal diameter of 1.0 m and external diameter of 1.2 m.
The heavier Voskhods were launched by the 11A57 launch vehicle with a much larger third stage than that used for the Vostoks. This allowed installation of a backup solid propellant retrorocket package on the nose of the spacecraft.
Craft.Crew Size: 3. Design Life: 14 days. Total Length: 5.0 m. Maximum Diameter: 2.4 m. Total Mass: 5,682 kg. Electrical System: Batteries.
|Voskhod 3 Interior|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 57,604 bytes. 562 x 382 pixels.
Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 59 'On approval of work to convert Vostok to Voskhod and use it for three-person space missions' was issued.
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On approval of work on four Voskhods and five EVA-equipped Vykhods' was issued. Work on the 3KV (three crew) and 3KD (two crew plus inflatable airlock) versions of the basic Vostok spacecraft began.
Decree 'On approval of work on Voskhod and Vykhod' was issued.
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On formation of the State Commission for Voskhod' was issued.
Recovered October 7, 1964 7:28 GMT. Voskhod 1 test.
Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.
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Land recovery made possible by rocket package suspended above capsule in parachute lines, which ignited just prior to impact in order to cushion landing. The trio landed after 16 orbits of the earth, 24 hours and 17 min after they had left, on October 13, 1964 7:47 GMT.
Coming before the two-man Gemini flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant worldwide impact. In the United States, the "space race" was again running under the green flag. NASA Administrator James E. Webb, commenting on the spectacular, called it a "significant space accomplishment." It was, he said, "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige." Additional Details: Voskhod 1.
Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On creation of military Voskhod and Soyuz spacecraft' was issued.
Successfully recovered March 15, 1966 13:00 GMT. Biosat using Voskhod 3 hardware. 2 dogs carried into lower Van Allen radiation belts.
Officially: Biological research.
Planned duration 19 days. Biological endurance mission cancelled after near-disaster with Voskhod 2. Initial Orbit was to have been 175 km X 500 km at 65 deg. Follow-on missions with journalist, physician, and all-female crews also cancelled. Original Prime Crew was Katys, Volynov; Backup Crew: Beregovoi, Demin; Support Crew: Artyukhin, Shatalov. These assignments were reshuffled to those shown when Katys had to be dropped from the prime crew.
Planned second long-duration 20 day Voskhod flight. Cancelled in spring 1966 after near-disaster with Voskhod 2 and death of Korolev. A follow-on Voskhod 3V s/n 7 mission was also planned that would have conducted an artificial gravity experiment, unreeling a tether between the Voskhod spacecraft and the Block I final rocket stage.