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astronautix.com VKS


Class: Manned. Type: Spaceplane. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: Korolev.

In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. The Ministry of Defence issued technical specifications on 1 September for an MVKS, a single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system. The MKVS was to provide effective and economic delivery to near-earth orbit; develop the technology for effective transatmospheric flight; provide super high-speed intercontinental transport, and fulfil military objectives in and from space. It is known that the Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Energia design bureaux submitted designs.

At NPO Energia Tsybin was appointed the Chief Designer for the project. The Energia VKS was designed as a hypersonic rocketplane with multi-regime engines. These engines were turbo-ramjet with in-line rocket chambers. The VKS was sketched out as having a 700 tonne takeoff mass, of which 140 tonnes was structure. A 25 tonne payload could be delivered to a 200 km / 51 degree orbit. Length would have been 71 m, wingspan 42 m, and height 10 m to the top of the fuselage.

Work was abandoned as the Soviet Union broke up and the Tu-2000 seemed the preferred solution.


Specification

Total Length: 71.0 m. Maximum Diameter: 10.0 m. Total Mass: 700,000 kg. Total Payload: 25,000 kg. Total Propellants: 500,000 kg.


VKS Chronology


27 January 1986 Government decree orders design of a Soviet aerospaceplane Launch Vehicle: Tu-2000, Yakovlev MVKS, VKS.

In reaction to US X-30 project government decree ordered development of a Soviet equivalent.


19 July 1986 Government decree orders development of a Soviet aerospaceplane Launch Vehicle: Tu-2000, Yakovlev MVKS, VKS.

The decree of 27 January 1986 was reaffirmed.


01 September 1986 MVKS specification issued Launch Vehicle: Tu-2000, Yakovlev MVKS, VKS.

The Ministry of Defence issued technical specifications on 1 September for an MVKS, a single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system. The MKVS was to provide effective and economic delivery to near-earth orbit; develop the technology for effective transatmospheric flight; provide super high-speed intercontinental transport, and fulfil military objectives in and from space.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .