Tsybin OKB built rocket-propelled transonic research aircraft LL-1, LL-2, and LL-3 from 1945. Subsequently on 23 May 1955 selected to build RS ramjet powered Mach 3 intercontinental reconnaisance aircraft (air-launched from Tu-95N), in competition with Myasishchyev M-40 Buran and Lavochkin La-X Burya ground-launched missiles. After success of Korolev's R-7 ICBM, RS redesigned as RSR reconnaisance aircraft with turbojets. Tsybin then submitted design in first Soviet spaceplane competition. Configuration resembled X-15, but with extended positive anhedral wings. Work began in close collaboration with Korolev OKB in 1958. Tsybin bureau closed down and staff transfered first to Myasishchyev bureau in October 1959 (which had its own on-going winged spacecraft project), then to Chelomei bureau in 1960. Work on this and RSR/R-020 stopped by Chelomei in April 1961. Members of Tsybin design team absorbed into Chelomei spaceplane project team under Khrushchev's son. Tsybin himself left Chelomei OKB and moved to Korolev OKB when his projects were cancelled, working on the Korolev's manned spacecraft and launch vehicle projects, finally becoming Deputy Designer of Buran space shuttle from 1974 until his death in 1992. References: 81 , 83 , 192 .