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astronautix.com Tsiklon


Article Number: 11F617. Code Name: Tsiklon. Class: Navigation. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: Reshetnev.

Tsiklon, the first prototype Soviet navigation satellite system, was designed by Reshetnev; the navigation and control system was by NII Radiopribor (Ivanov, Chief Designer, L I Gusev, Director); with communications systems by MNIIRS MPSS (Nesvist). The Kosmos-3M launch vehicle was used.

The requirement for such a system was first identified in the late 1950's in order to provide Soviet ballistic missile submarines with accurate position fixes so that acceptable submarine-launched ballistic missile accuracy could be achieved. The TTZ specification was completed by the TsYKOS MO (Space Forces) and the VMF (Soviet Navy). In 1962 research institute NII-695 completed the draft project for a Tsiklon experimental satellite. It was to use the Doppler navigation method and be placed in 800 to 1000 km altitude orbits. Development of the satellite was given to Reshetnev and experimental flights began in 1967 in order to develop a system meeting the required tactical and operational characteristics.

The shipboard installation consisted of the Tsunami system, composed of the Sirius radio station, the Signal antenna stabilisation platform, the Konus-4 omnidirectional antenna, and the Kvant-L antenna. First trial were conducted with a Project 680 vessel of the Black Sea fleet and showed a position error of 3 km, which was intolerable. A large part of the problem was with inaccuracies in the software models available for predicting the spacecraft ephemerides. Work by the KIK Centre resulted in a 10 to 30 times improvement in this accuracy, incorporating new information on the gravitational anomalies and geoid of the earth. Use of the revised software in 1969 showed an average error of 100 m over a five day period. Further improvement required a better mapping of the earth's gravitational anomalies. Testing of Tsiklon would continue through 1972 before an adequate operational system could be designed. The Parus/Tsiklon-B production system began flight tests in1974.

Tsiklon used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2.035 m diameter cylindrical spacecraft body, with solar cells and radiators of the thermostatic temperature regulating system mounted on the exterior. Orientation was by a single-axis magneto-gravitational (gravity gradient boom) passive system. The hermetically sealed compartment had the equipment mounted in cruciform bays, with the chemical batteries protecting the radio and guidance equipment mounted at the centre).


Specification

Total Length: 3.0 m. Maximum Diameter: 2.0 m. Total Mass: 800 kg.


Tsiklon Chronology


01 January 1962 Draft project for Tsiklon experimental navigation satellite completed

Research institute NII-695 completed the draft project for a Tsiklon experimental navigation satellite. It was to use the Doppler navigation method and be placed in 800 to 1000 km altitude orbits. Experimental flights began in 1967 in order to develop a system meeting the required tactical and operational characteristics.


15 May 1967 Cosmos 158 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 729 km. Apogee: 811 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


27 September 1967 Tsiklon GVM Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.
23 November 1967 Cosmos 192 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 775 kg. Perigee: 716 km. Apogee: 725 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


07 May 1968 Cosmos 220 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 775 kg. Perigee: 637 km. Apogee: 700 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


14 August 1969 Cosmos 292 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 775 kg. Perigee: 719 km. Apogee: 733 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


21 October 1969 Cosmos 304 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 795 kg. Perigee: 731 km. Apogee: 748 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


11 April 1970 Cosmos 332 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 775 kg. Perigee: 727 km. Apogee: 736 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


20 August 1970 Cosmos 358 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 334 km. Apogee: 342 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
12 October 1970 Cosmos 371 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 775 kg. Perigee: 722 km. Apogee: 728 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


12 December 1970 Cosmos 385 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 680 kg. Perigee: 972 km. Apogee: 978 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


22 May 1971 Cosmos 422 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 680 kg. Perigee: 980 km. Apogee: 1,003 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


15 December 1971 Cosmos 465 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 680 kg. Perigee: 964 km. Apogee: 1,004 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


25 February 1972 Cosmos 475 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 680 kg. Perigee: 961 km. Apogee: 993 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


06 May 1972 Cosmos 489 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 680 kg. Perigee: 959 km. Apogee: 997 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


16 August 1972 Cosmos 514 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 680 kg. Perigee: 949 km. Apogee: 965 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


26 January 1973 Cosmos 546 Launch Site: Kapustin Yar . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 537 km. Apogee: 564 km. Inclination: 50.7 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


25 May 1973 Zaliv Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.
20 June 1973 Cosmos 574 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 550 kg. Perigee: 975 km. Apogee: 1,008 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


14 September 1973 Cosmos 586 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 550 kg. Perigee: 960 km. Apogee: 1,000 km. Inclination: 82.9 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


29 December 1973 Cosmos 627 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 550 kg. Perigee: 964 km. Apogee: 1,012 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


17 January 1974 Cosmos 628 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 550 kg. Perigee: 950 km. Apogee: 1,007 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


27 June 1974 Cosmos 663 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 680 kg. Perigee: 961 km. Apogee: 997 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


19 October 1974 Cosmos 689 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 680 kg. Perigee: 970 km. Apogee: 1,012 km. Inclination: 82.9 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


23 April 1975 Cosmos 729 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 725 kg. Perigee: 969 km. Apogee: 1,005 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


03 February 1976 Cosmos 800 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 650 kg. Perigee: 975 km. Apogee: 1,008 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


03 June 1976 Cosmos 823 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 650 kg. Perigee: 969 km. Apogee: 1,005 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


29 July 1976 Cosmos 846 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 650 kg. Perigee: 946 km. Apogee: 1,006 km. Inclination: 82.9 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


20 January 1977 Cosmos 890 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 973 km. Apogee: 1,013 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


28 October 1977 Cosmos 962 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 959 km. Apogee: 1,004 km. Inclination: 83.0 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


15 March 1978 Cosmos 994 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 920 kg. Perigee: 969 km. Apogee: 1,005 km. Inclination: 82.9 deg.

Military navigation satellite.


27 July 1978 Cosmos 1027 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 920 kg. Perigee: 955 km. Apogee: 997 km. Inclination: 82.9 deg.

Military navigation satellite.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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