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astronautix.com Tselina-O


Article Number: 11F616. Class: ELINT. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: KBYu.

From 1965 to 1967 two dedicated ELINT systems were tested by the Soviet Union: Tselina and US. Both were routinely operated. The Ministry of Defence could not decide on a single system. The Navy used radio intelligence US-P and US-A variants. Tselina was developed into two systems: Tselina-O for general observations and Tselina-D for detailed observations. TsNII-108 GKRE (Zaslavskiy) developed the payload while V M Kovtunenko of OKB-586 build the satellite and launch vehicle.

The first Tselina-O was launched by a Kosmos-3M in 1970. Delays in payload development and weight growth of the Tselina-D resulted in the whole Tselina system not being operational until 1976. Tselina-O was in use for 15 years and 60 launches. Constant improvement resulted in Tselina-O being abandoned in 1984 and all systems being put on Tselina-D.

Reliability of space systems was an issue with the military, and Tselina-O represented a particular problem. Due to urgency to deploy the system, there was not time to develop an adequate technical basis for first generation systems. The Tselina system of M E Zaslavskiy has been cited as a particular case in point. The availability of the system could not be guaranteed due to its developmental status. The classified nature of the work also hampered improvements. Only in the 1970's were reliability problems solved. Tselina-O had 10 high frequency reception channels. The Tselina-D and -O spacecraft were operated simultaneously to maximise results.


Specification


Tselina-O Chronology


26 June 1967 Tselina-O GVM Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.
30 October 1967 Cosmos 189 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 510 km. Apogee: 599 km. Inclination: 73.8 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite test.


20 January 1968 Cosmos 200 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Perigee: 518 km. Apogee: 539 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible navigation satellite.


31 October 1968 Cosmos 250 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 522 km. Apogee: 542 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible navigation satellite.


05 March 1969 Cosmos 269 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 525 km. Apogee: 543 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


20 December 1969 Cosmos 315 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 325 kg. Perigee: 518 km. Apogee: 542 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible navigation satellite.


07 April 1970 Cosmos 330 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 514 km. Apogee: 543 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Possible navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 250.


16 December 1970 Cosmos 387 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 525 km. Apogee: 543 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 269.


18 February 1971 Cosmos 395 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 529 km. Apogee: 546 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


29 May 1971 Cosmos 425 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 820 kg. Perigee: 506 km. Apogee: 553 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


22 July 1971 Tselina-O Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.
07 September 1971 Cosmos 436 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 510 km. Apogee: 543 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


10 September 1971 Cosmos 437 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 517 km. Apogee: 539 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 436. Possible ELINT satellite.


30 November 1971 Cosmos 460 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 517 km. Apogee: 541 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


22 March 1972 Cosmos 479 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 517 km. Apogee: 537 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


26 March 1972 Tselina-O accepted into military service.

Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On adoption of Tselina-O into armaments' was issued.


10 July 1972 Cosmos 500 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 505 km. Apogee: 548 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 425.


03 November 1972 Cosmos 536 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 522 km. Apogee: 539 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible navigation satellite.


20 January 1973 Cosmos 544 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 528 km. Apogee: 535 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 460. Possible ELINT satellite.


28 February 1973 Cosmos 549 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 513 km. Apogee: 545 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


26 June 1973 Tselina Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Failure.
28 August 1973 Cosmos 582 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 519 km. Apogee: 543 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


27 November 1973 Cosmos 610 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 515 km. Apogee: 545 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


06 February 1974 Cosmos 631 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 519 km. Apogee: 545 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 479. Possible ELINT satellite.


21 May 1974 Cosmos 655 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 523 km. Apogee: 542 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 536. Possible ELINT satellite.


21 June 1974 Cosmos 661 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 511 km. Apogee: 548 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Possible ELINT satellite.


18 December 1974 Cosmos 698 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 875 kg. Perigee: 515 km. Apogee: 552 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 549. Possible ELINT satellite.


05 February 1975 Cosmos 707 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 491 km. Apogee: 548 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


04 July 1975 Cosmos 749 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 509 km. Apogee: 550 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 610. Possible ELINT satellite.


21 November 1975 Cosmos 781 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 499 km. Apogee: 563 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 698. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


06 January 1976 Cosmos 787 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 509 km. Apogee: 565 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 655. Possible ELINT satellite.


23 January 1976 Cosmos 790 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 511 km. Apogee: 548 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 631. Possible ELINT satellite.


06 April 1976 Cosmos 812 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 508 km. Apogee: 548 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 544. Possible ELINT satellite.


27 July 1976 Cosmos 845 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 487 km. Apogee: 597 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 812. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


02 December 1976 Cosmos 870 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 504 km. Apogee: 563 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 500. Possible ELINT satellite.


25 March 1977 Cosmos 899 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 503 km. Apogee: 547 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 437. Possible ELINT satellite.


05 July 1977 Cosmos 924 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 513 km. Apogee: 552 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 436. Possible ELINT satellite.


25 October 1977 Cosmos 960 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 502 km. Apogee: 546 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 870. Possible ELINT satellite.


17 May 1978 Cosmos 1008 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 1,080 kg. Perigee: 499 km. Apogee: 549 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 845. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


15 December 1978 Cosmos 1062 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 810 kg. Perigee: 504 km. Apogee: 549 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 899. Possible ELINT satellite.


11 July 1979 Cosmos 1114 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 1,080 kg. Perigee: 506 km. Apogee: 552 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 924. Possible ELINT satellite.


14 October 1980 Cosmos 1215 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 493 km. Apogee: 546 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Radar calibration. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


31 March 1982 Cosmos 1345 Program: Tselina. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 355 km. Apogee: 369 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.



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