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astronautix.com Strela-2M

Strela-1
Strela-1 - Strela-1 prototype. Later spacecraft in the series are believed to be similar in appearance.

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Article Number: 11F610. Class: Communications. Type: Military Store-dump. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: NPO PM.

The Strela communications system consisted of a large constellation of medium orbit store-dump satellites that provided survivable communications for Soviet military and intelligence forces. The larger Strela-2M model provided encrypted communications for theatre military forces. Strela-2M's were launched one at a time by Kosmos 3M launch vehicles into orbits at 800 km altitude in three orbital planes inclined 74 degrees to the equator and spaced 120 degrees apart.

The system was developed experimentally in the 1960's, with flight tests from 1965. Reshetnev was the chief designer in collaboration with the KB Krasnoyarsk Radio-Technical Factory (V G Taranenko) and MNIIRS MPSS (Yu S Bikov). The Strela-2M used the communications satellite bus KAUR-1. Flight tests of the operational system began in 1970. Production system work began in 1972. In 1974 the Strela 2M system was accepted by the military. In the period 1970 to 1994 a total of 59 Strela-2M's were launched. The satellites could be monitored in the West by their characteristic continuous wave beacon at 153.660 MHz. There have been no launches since 1994 and the Strela-3 seems to be the only system that will be operated in the future.

Strela-2M used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2.035 m diameter cylindrical spacecraft body, with solar cells and radiators of the thermostatic temperature regulating system mounted on the exterior. Orientation was by a single-axis magneto-gravitational (gravity gradient boom) passive system. The hermetically sealed compartment had the equipment mounted in cruciform bays, with the chemical batteries protecting the radio and guidance equipment mounted at the centre.


Specification

Total Length: 3.0 m. Maximum Diameter: 2.0 m. Total Mass: 900 kg.


Strela-2M Chronology


27 June 1970 Strela-2 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.
16 October 1970 Cosmos 372 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 767 km. Apogee: 787 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
23 April 1971 Cosmos 407 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 773 km. Apogee: 800 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
17 December 1971 Cosmos 468 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 768 km. Apogee: 789 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
23 June 1972 Cosmos 494 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 772 km. Apogee: 786 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
17 October 1972 Strela-2 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.
26 December 1972 Cosmos 540 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 763 km. Apogee: 790 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
04 December 1973 Cosmos 614 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 751 km. Apogee: 787 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
11 September 1974 Cosmos 676 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 779 km. Apogee: 798 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
30 September 1975 Cosmos 773 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 772 km. Apogee: 790 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
28 November 1975 Cosmos 783 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 779 km. Apogee: 797 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
29 June 1976 Cosmos 836 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 773 km. Apogee: 801 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
15 July 1976 Cosmos 841 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 769 km. Apogee: 789 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
29 September 1976 Cosmos 858 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 774 km. Apogee: 794 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
01 July 1977 Cosmos 923 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 781 km. Apogee: 800 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
16 December 1977 Cosmos 968 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 765 km. Apogee: 791 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
17 February 1978 Cosmos 990 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 764 km. Apogee: 791 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
21 June 1978 Cosmos 1023 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 766 km. Apogee: 786 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
17 November 1978 Cosmos 1048 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 769 km. Apogee: 797 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
28 June 1979 Cosmos 1110 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 775 km. Apogee: 797 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
28 August 1979 Cosmos 1125 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 779 km. Apogee: 795 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
11 October 1979 Cosmos 1140 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 765 km. Apogee: 787 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
01 July 1980 Cosmos 1190 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 777 km. Apogee: 792 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
07 May 1981 Cosmos 1269 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 781 km. Apogee: 798 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
28 August 1981 Cosmos 1302 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 771 km. Apogee: 796 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1269.


07 January 1982 Cosmos 1331 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 757 km. Apogee: 795 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1302.


28 April 1982 Cosmos 1354 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 783 km. Apogee: 798 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1190.


01 June 1982 Cosmos 1371 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 781 km. Apogee: 801 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1140.


30 August 1982 Strela-2 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.
11 November 1982 Cosmos 1420 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 768 km. Apogee: 800 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
12 April 1983 Cosmos 1452 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 774 km. Apogee: 800 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1371.


03 August 1983 Cosmos 1486 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 775 km. Apogee: 794 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1354.


12 October 1983 Cosmos 1503 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 779 km. Apogee: 800 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1486.


21 February 1984 Cosmos 1538 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 769 km. Apogee: 800 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1420.


08 June 1984 Cosmos 1570 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 782 km. Apogee: 800 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1452.


17 January 1985 Cosmos 1624 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 777 km. Apogee: 797 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1570.


04 September 1985 Cosmos 1680 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 774 km. Apogee: 798 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1538.


18 April 1986 Cosmos 1741 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 773 km. Apogee: 801 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1503.


16 July 1986 Cosmos 1763 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 749 km. Apogee: 794 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
10 September 1986 Cosmos 1777 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 768 km. Apogee: 803 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Replaced Cosmos 1624.


21 January 1987 Cosmos 1814 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 763 km. Apogee: 799 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
09 June 1987 Cosmos 1850 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 776 km. Apogee: 797 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
01 December 1987 Cosmos 1898 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 750 kg. Perigee: 770 km. Apogee: 800 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
05 April 1988 Cosmos 1937 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 761 km. Apogee: 797 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
21 June 1988 Cosmos 1954 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 700 kg. Perigee: 772 km. Apogee: 796 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Outer space research.


26 January 1989 Cosmos 1992 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 764 km. Apogee: 798 km. Inclination: 74.1 deg.
18 January 1990 Cosmos 2056 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 768 km. Apogee: 804 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
10 December 1990 Cosmos 2112 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 764 km. Apogee: 807 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
11 June 1991 Cosmos 2150 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 778 km. Apogee: 805 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
12 August 1992 Cosmos 2208 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 785 km. Apogee: 803 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
16 June 1993 Cosmos 2251 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 778 km. Apogee: 803 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.
20 December 1994 Cosmos 2298 Program: Strela. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. Mass: 900 kg. Perigee: 785 km. Apogee: 810 km. Inclination: 74.0 deg.

Bibliography:



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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