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Sputnik 3
Sputnik 3 -

Credit: © Mark Wade. 17,455 bytes. 334 x 249 pixels.



Other Designations: ISZ. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: OKB-1.

In July 1956 OKB-1 completed the draft project for the first earth satellite, designated ISZ (Artificial Earth Satellite). The government go-ahead came in a decree of 3 September 1956. The Fourth Scientific Research Institute of the Ministry of Defence had meanwhile completed a draft project for the KIK ground control system. Tikhonravov's 1.4 tonne ISZ satellite was to have been launched by the new R-7 ICBM as the Soviet Union's first satellite, but the R-7 was ready before the satellite, so it was preceded by Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2. The ISZ was a miniature physics laboratory, but was launched with a known faulty recorder, limiting data to that received when the spacecraft was over Soviet tracking stations. As a result, the Van Allen radiation belts were discovered by the United States rather than Russia.


Specification

Total Mass: 1,327 kg.


Sputnik 3 Chronology


16 May 1952 International Geophysical Year Committee established.

The Special Committee for the International Polar Year (later designated the International Geophysical Year), was established.


30 January 1956 Development of first Sputnik authorised.

Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 149882 'On creation of the Object D artificial satellite' was issued.


01 July 1956 OKB-1 completed draft project for the first earth satellite Launch Vehicle: R-7 8K71.

Tikhonravov's unit of OKB-1 completed the preliminary design of the ISZ satellite (launched as Sputnik 3). The Fourth Scientific Research Institute of the Ministry of Defence had meanwhile completed a draft project for the KIK ground control system. Tikhonravov's 1.4 tonne ISZ satellite was to have been launched by the new R-7 ICBM as the Soviet Union's first satellite, but the R-7 was ready before the satellite, so it was preceded by Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2. The ISZ was a miniature physics laboratory, but was launched with a known faulty recorder, limiting data to that received when the spacecraft was over Soviet tracking stations. As a result, the Van Allen radiation belts were discovered by the United States rather than Russia.


03 September 1956 Soviet space and ballistic missile tracking network established. Launch Vehicle: R-7 8K71.

Decree 1241-632 '0n creation or the Command Measurement Complex' was issued. The decree marked the beginning of development of the KIK satellite tracking system. This network was put together using a combination of PVO (Air Defence) and ICBM tracking systems. Trajectory information was fed into the KIK Centre for orbital calculations. The Centre was staffed by 680 officers and 151 civilian scientists of the Soviet Army in four sections.


30 September 1956 Sputnik 3 draft project approved. Launch Vehicle: R-7 8K71.

Decree 'On approval of the draft project for Object D' was issued. The decree gave the go-ahead for Tikhonravov's 1.4 tonne ISZ physics satellite to be launched by the new R-7 ICBM during the International Geophysical Year . The ISZ, a miniature physics laboratory,.was to have been the first artificial satellite of the earth. In the event, it was preceded by Sputniks 1 and 2.


27 April 1958 Sputnik failure Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8A91. FAILURE: Launch vehicle disintegrated 88 seconds after liftoff.
15 May 1958 Sputnik 3 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8A91. Mass: 1,327 kg. Perigee: 217 km. Apogee: 1,864 km. Inclination: 65.2 deg.

Variety of scientific data. Research in the upper atmosphere and outer space



Bibliography:



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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