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astronautix.com Space Station 1984

Martin Station-'84
Martin Station-'84 -

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 34,391 bytes. 361 x 480 pixels.



Nation: USA. Agency: NASA.

Despite strong opposition from other Reagan Administration officials (most notably science advisor George Keyworth and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger), the President finally approved the space station project in January 1984. Two years of determined NASA lobbying had finally paid off. Scientists and the military were opposed to the project, however, so NASA promised Reagan that the first two years of the project would be devoted to low-cost definition studies. NASA had agreed to develop a facility that would meet certain requirements while costing no more than $8 billion at 1984 rates. The main justifications for the Space Station project were 'jobs and foreign policy prestige.' In his January 1984 speech, the President directed NASA to invite 'America's friends and allies' so that 'we can strengthen peace, build prosperity, and expand freedom for all who share our goals.' Reagan showed the Space Station model to the other G7 leaders at the London economic summit in June 1984.

Under the 1984 plan, the Space Station would be launched in 1991-92. The initial Station would cost $11 billion ($8 billion at 1984 rates) including two unmanned free-flying platforms dedicated to astronomy and Earth observation. The international partners were expected to contribute another $2-3 billion on top of the American investment. The Station's long term funding plan called for $0.235 billion in Fiscal 1985, $0.335 billion in 1986, about $1.2 billion in 1987, and about $2 billion per year in 1988-91 (all figures in 1984 dollars). During the growth phase -- which had not yet been approved -- NASA expected to spend an additional $16 billion by 2002 to add a space tug for missions to geostationary orbit and the Moon. The crew capability would also be expanded from 6-8 astronauts to 12-18. After 2000, the Space Station would evolve into a space harbour in low Earth orbit for lunar and planetary missions as well as commercial exploitation of space resources.

Man-tended platforms would have co-orbited with the main Station complex or placed in polar orbits. But these were cancelled in 1987 and 1990 respectively. In fact, the role of cheap unmanned platforms versus a large permanently manned base was hotly debated in Congress throughout the 1980s. Powerful House and Senate leaders such as Edward Boland, William Proxmire and William Green wanted a less expensive, semi-permanently manned 'build it by the yard' platform that would be launched sooner. NASA, however, had institutional reasons for doing a large international Space Station since it provided more work and funding for its space centres and the Space Shuttle program.


LRC Station-1984LRC Station-1984 - 1984: Reagan Approves The. The Space Station looked like this in January 1984 when Reagan approved the program. The concept shown here was developed by the Space Station Task Force's Concept Definition Team.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 40,529 bytes. 640 x 338 pixels.


Eight concepts were identified as most promising by NASA's Station Concept Development Group after the results of the 1982 contractor studies had been analysed. In March 1984, the Station Concept Development Group reduced the list to four concepts -- the 'CDG 1 planar-array', 'streamline T', 'triangular delta-truss', and 'power tower'. A fifth, the 'spinning array', was retained as a candidate for a space resource module.


Reagan and StationReagan and Station - 1984: Reagan describes Space Station Freedom to Thatcher. Reagan showed the Space Station model to the other G7 leaders at the London economic summit in June 1984.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 25,992 bytes. 562 x 375 pixels.



Station PredecessorsStation Predecessors - Space Station Mission Plan - 1984.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 54,490 bytes. 601 x 480 pixels.


Article by Marcus Lindroos
Specification

Electrical System: Solar panels.



Station Plan-1990-95Station Plan-1990-95 - Space Station Mission Plan - 1984. Under the 1984 plan, the Space Station would be launched in 1991-92.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 19,712 bytes. 397 x 309 pixels.



Station Plan-1995-99Station Plan-1995-99 - Space Station Mission Plan - 1984. During the growth phase -- which had not yet been approved -- NASA expected to spend an additional $16 billion by 2002 to add a space tug for missions to geostationary orbit and the Moon.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 19,692 bytes. 395 x 321 pixels.



Station Plan - 2000+Station Plan - 2000+ - Space Station Mission Plan - 1984. After 2000, the Space Station would evolve into a space harbor in low Earth orbit for lunar and planetary missions as well as commercial exploitation of space resources.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 19,774 bytes. 401 x 312 pixels.



Station Plan - 1984Station Plan - 1984 - Space Station Mission Plan - 1984.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 54,461 bytes. 483 x 478 pixels.



Station GeometriesStation Geometries - 1984 Space Station Geometry Options. In March 1984, the Station Concept Development Group reduced the list to four concepts -- the "CDG 1 planar-array", "streamline T", "triangular delta-truss", and "power tower". A fifth, the "spinning array", was retained as a candidate for a space resource module.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 10,208 bytes. 617 x 460 pixels.



1984 Station Options1984 Station Options - These eight concepts were identified as most promising by NASA's Station Concept Development Group after the results of the 1982 contractor studies had been analyzed.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 4,237 bytes. 400 x 321 pixels.



JSC Station-1984JSC Station-1984 - 1984 Space Station Options. The Johnson Space Center's "Racetrack" configuration appears to be loosely based on the earlier Space Operations Center concept.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 52,683 bytes. 628 x 476 pixels.



JSC Station-1984JSC Station-1984 - 1984 Space Station Options. NASA/JSC "Racetrack" growth configuration with space tug hangar & satellite servicing facilities. This concept was abandoned fairly early, however.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 50,834 bytes. 602 x 480 pixels.



1984 Space Station1984 Space Station - 1984 Space Station Concept. The "Spinning Array" was a rotating design with despun crew modules for microgravity work; the concept was intended mainly for attitude stabilization. This design was rejected as a candidate for the Space Station itself but briefly retained as a resource module candidate.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 62,770 bytes. 563 x 454 pixels.



1984 MSFC Station1984 MSFC Station - 1984 Space Station Option - Planar. The Marshall Space Flight Center's "CDG Planar" design is quite similar to the final International Space Station concept chosen in 1993. This was one of the rejected "Final Four" designs.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 66,967 bytes. 639 x 508 pixels.



Planar Station-1984Planar Station-1984 - 1984 Space Station Options - Planar.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 6,054 bytes. 607 x 403 pixels.



Delta Station - 1984Delta Station - 1984 - 1984 Space Station Options - Delta Station.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 7,795 bytes. 569 x 360 pixels.



Delta Station - 1984Delta Station - 1984 - 1984 Space Station Options - Delta Station. The "Delta" design consisted of a large triangular truss structure with solar panels mounted on top and pressurized crew modules at the bottom of the structure. It would have required a considerable amount of in-orbit assembly.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 62,431 bytes. 591 x 480 pixels.



Delta Station - 1984Delta Station - 1984 - 1984 Space Station Options - Delta Station. The "Delta" design could later have evolved into a major orbital spaceport since the triangular structure provided a natural service hangar. This was one of the rejected "Final Four" designs.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 52,196 bytes. 495 x 480 pixels.



Big T Station - 1984Big T Station - 1984 - 1984 Space Station Options - Big T Station, 1984

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 6,000 bytes. 511 x 425 pixels.



Big T Station - 1984Big T Station - 1984 - 1984 Space Station Options - Big T Station, 1984. The "Big T" was a gravity gradient-stabilized design consisting of pressurized crew modules mated to a T-shaped solar array structure. This "Final Four" design was rejected in favor of the "Power Tower" in June 1984.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 46,281 bytes. 511 x 425 pixels.



Luna Transit StationLuna Transit Station - NASA Station used to assemble lunar vehicles, 1984.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 32,565 bytes. 640 x 480 pixels.



Shuttle C 1989Shuttle C 1989

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 35,274 bytes. 443 x 449 pixels.



Shuttle C 1989Shuttle C 1989

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 24,651 bytes. 406 x 314 pixels.



Shuttle C 1989Shuttle C 1989

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 19,088 bytes. 347 x 480 pixels.



Spaceflight BudgetSpaceflight Budget - Actual NASA budget vs that required for various ambitious space plans

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 10,724 bytes. 649 x 444 pixels.



Manned Flight TrendsManned Flight Trends - Annual Total Manned Spaceflight Hours 1961-2006

Credit: Marcus Lindroos. 6,558 bytes. 640 x 438 pixels.



Manned Flight TrendsManned Flight Trends - Cumulative Total Manned Spaceflight Hours 1961-2006

Credit: Marcus Lindroos. 6,798 bytes. 640 x 438 pixels.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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