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astronautix.com Soyuz 7K-T

Soyuz 7K-T
Soyuz 7K-T -

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Article Number: 11F615A8. Manufacturer's Designation: 7K-T, 7K-T/AF/. Class: Manned. Type: Spacecraft. Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: Korolev.

Following the disastrous Soyuz 11 flight, when the crew was killed by cabin depressurisation, the 7K-OKS design was subjected to a complete redesign, resulting in the substantially safer 7K-T space station ferry. One crew position was eliminated, making it possible for the two crew members to wear pressure suits during dangerous phases of the flight. Batteries replaced the solar panels of the earlier configuration, to eliminate the chance of undeployed panels causing problems as was the case on Soyuz 1. Numerous minor changes were made to improve the basic safety and redundancy of the design. The 7K-T would safely fly 31 times until replaced by the Soyuz T in 1981.

Soyuz Guidance and Controls

The re-entry manoeuvre was normally handled automatically by radio command. Spacecraft attitude in relation to the local motion along the orbit was determined by sun sensors, infrared horizon sensors and ion gauges, which could detect the spacecraft's direction of motion by the greater velocity of ions impacting the spacecraft in the direction of motion.

The cosmonaut could however take manual control of the spacecraft and manually re-enter. This was done by using the ingenious Vzor periscope device. This had a central view and eight ports arranged in a circle around the centre. When the spacecraft was perfectly centred in respect to the horizon, all eight of the ports would be lit up. Alignment along the orbit was judged by getting lines on the main scope to be aligned with the landscape flowing by below. In this way, the spacecraft could be oriented correctly for the re-entry manoeuvre.

To decide when to re-enter, the cosmonaut had a little clockwork globe that showed current position over the earth. By pushing a button to the right of the globe, it would be advanced to the landing position assuming a standard re-entry at that moment.

This manual system would obviously only be used during daylight portions of the orbit. At night the dark mass of the earth could not have been lined up with the optical Vzor device. The automatic system would work day or night. However problems were found on Soyuz 1 when the ion gauges would not function in ion 'pockets' of low density in the re-entry manoeuvre portion of the orbit.

The Soyuz kept (to this day) the little globe and Vzor system. On the early model Soyuz, prior to the Soyuz T of the 1980's, there was no on-board inertial navigation system. To perform an orbital manoeuvre, the parameters for an orbital manoeuvre would be transmitted from the ground. When the time came for a manoeuvre, the spacecraft would align itself to the local vertical and direction of motion by the methods mentioned above (automatic or manual). Then three gyros would be spun up, the spacecraft manoeuvred automatically or manually to the required attitude for the manoeuvre, and the main engine would fire automatically at the prescribed time to make the orbit change. There is a simple delta-v gauge showing the velocity change. Since the Soyuz thrust to weight is so low (around 0.06, or only half a meter per second) this meant the manoeuvres could be handled manually without much error (on re-entry burns the practice was to count to five after the engine was supposed to shut off before overriding it!)

The Soyuz has always had very limited manoeuvre capability, a source of some embarrassment during the ASTP joint flight where the Apollo did most of the manoeuvring. Not until the Soyuz T version was enough manoeuvring fuel and the inertial navigation system available to allow rendezvous with non-co-operative objects (like the dead Salyut 7 station on the epic Soyuz T-15 flight) and to fly around objects for inspection (this is theoretically possible in the old models, but due to limited fuel or conservatism it was never demonstrated).



Panel Soyuz 7K-OKPanel Soyuz 7K-OK - Control panel of the initial earth orbit version of Soyuz.

Credit: © Mark Wade. 11,752 bytes. 723 x 288 pixels.


Specification

Craft.Crew Size: 2. Design Life: 3 days. Orbital Storage: 110.00 days. Total Length: 7.5 m. Maximum Diameter: 2.7 m. Total Habitable Volume: 11.00 m3. Total Mass: 6,800 kg. Total Propellants: 500 kg. Primary Engine Thrust: 417 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: Nitric Acid/Hydrazine. Main Engine Isp: 282 sec. Total spacecraft delta v: 210 m/s. Electric system: 0.84 total average kW. Electrical System: Batteries.


Soyuz 7K-T Chronology


09 February 1970 Salyut project begins.

Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 105-41 'On creation of the DOS using Almaz as a basis' was issued.


16 February 1970 Salyut crash program authorised.

Decree 57ss 'On creation of the DOS using Almaz as a basis' was issued.


26 June 1972 Cosmos 496 Program: Salyut. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. Mass: 6,675 kg. Perigee: 176 km. Apogee: 253 km. Inclination: 51.5 deg. Duration: 9.95 days.

Recovered July 6, 1972 13:54 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test.



Soyuz 7K-T PanelSoyuz 7K-T Panel - Closeup of Soyuz 7K-T right sequencer panel

Credit: © Mark Wade. 44,577 bytes. 372 x 567 pixels.


30 June 1972 Soyuz (Almaz) 13 Program: Almaz. Flight Crew: Demin, Sarafanov.

Planned second crew to the first Almaz space station. Cancelled after the loss of control of Almaz OPS 1 (Salyut 2) in orbit.


01 August 1972 Soyuz 12 / DOS 2 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Kubasov, Leonov.

Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 2 space station. Cancelled after it was destroyed during launch.


01 October 1972 Soyuz 13 / DOS 2 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Lazarev, Makarov.

Planned second mission to the Salyut DOS 2 space station. Cancelled after it was destroyed during launch.


01 June 1973 Soyuz 12 / DOS 3 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Kubasov, Leonov.

Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 3 space station (Cosmos 557). Cancelled after it failed in orbit.


15 June 1973 Cosmos 573 Program: Salyut. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. Mass: 6,675 kg. Perigee: 191 km. Apogee: 308 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 2.00 days.

Soyuz test flight. Recovered June 17, 1973 6:01 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T redesign test.


01 September 1973 Soyuz 13 / DOS 3 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Lazarev, Makarov.

Planned second mission to the Salyut DOS 3 space station (Cosmos 557). Cancelled after it failed in orbit.


27 September 1973 Soyuz 12 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Manned flight: Soyuz 12. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. Mass: 6,720 kg. Perigee: 306 km. Apogee: 348 km. Inclination: 51.0 deg. Duration: 1.97 days.

Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Two solo test flights of the new design were planned. Crews for the first flight were those already planned for the deferred follow-on missions to the failed DOS 2 and DOS 3 space stations. Recovered September 29, 1973 13:14 GMT. Landed 400 km SW Karaganda.


30 November 1973 Cosmos 613 Program: Salyut. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. Mass: 6,675 kg. Perigee: 199 km. Apogee: 276 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 60.00 days.


Soyuz 7K-TSoyuz 7K-T

Credit: © Mark Wade. 5,868 bytes. 495 x 287 pixels.


Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered January 29, 1974 5:29 GMT. Soyuz 7K-T duration test.
18 December 1973 Soyuz 13 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Klimuk, Lebedev. Manned flight: Soyuz 13. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. Mass: 6,560 kg. Perigee: 188 km. Apogee: 247 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 7.87 days.

A unique flight of the 7K-T/AF modification of the Soyuz spacecraft. The orbital module was dominated by the large Orion 2 astrophysical camera. The crew conducted astrophysical observations of stars in the ultraviolet range. Additional experiments included spectrozonal photography of specific areas of the earth's surface, and continued testing of space craft's on-board systems. Recovered December 26, 1973 8:50 GMT. Landed in snowstorm 200 km SW Karaganda. Additional Details: Soyuz 13.


01 October 1974 Soyuz 16A Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Volynov, Zholobov.

Planned but cancelled third mission to the Salyut 3 space station.


11 January 1975 Soyuz 17 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Grechko, Gubarev. Manned flight: Soyuz 17. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 185 km. Apogee: 249 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 29.56 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station. Recovered February 9, 1975 11:03 GMT. Landed 110 km NE Tselinograd.


05 April 1975 Soyuz 18-1 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Manned flight: Soyuz 18-1. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. FAILURE: During second-third stage seperation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited. Mass: 6,830 kg. Duration: 0.01 days.

Carried Oleg Makarov, Vasili Lazarev for rendezvous with Salyut 4; but during second-third stage seperation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited. The crew demanded that the abort procedures be implemented but ground control could not see the launch vehicle gyrations in their telemetry. Soyuz finally was separated from by ground control command at 192 km, and following a 20.6+ G reentry, the capsule landed in the Altai mountains, tumbled down a mountainside, and snagged in some bushes just short of a precipice. The crew was worried that they may have landed in China and would face internment, but after an hour sitting in the cold next to the capsule, they were discovered by locals speaking Russian. Total flight duration was 1574 km and flight time 21 minutes 27 seconds. Lazarev suffered internal injuries from the high-G reentry and tumble down the mountain side and never flew again. Both cosmonauts were denied their 3000 ruble spaceflight bonus pay and had to apeal all the way to Brezhnev before being paid.



Soyuz InteriorSoyuz Interior - View of Soyuz interior.

Credit: © Mark Wade. 33,593 bytes. 389 x 437 pixels.


24 May 1975 Soyuz 18 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. Manned flight: Soyuz 18. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. Mass: 6,825 kg. Perigee: 186 km. Apogee: 230 km. Inclination: 51.7 deg. Duration: 62.97 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station. Recovered July 26, 1975 14:18 GMT. Landed 56 km E Arkalyk.


01 July 1977 Soyuz 25A Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Berezovoi, Lisun.

A Soyuz 25 mission to the Salyut 5 space station with the crew of Berzovoi and Lisun was to have followed Soyuz 24. However during the four months it took to prepare the Soyuz, Salyut 5 consumed higher than expected fuel in maintaining the station's orientation. As a result, the fuel reserves were 70 kg below those required for the planned 14 day mission and it was cancelled.


01 September 1977 Soyuz 26A Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Dzhanibekov, Kolodin.

Planned mission to Salyut 6 that would make first docking with rear docking port and be the first crew to swap spacecraft and return in the spacecraft that ferried the Soyuz 25 crew. But Soyuz 25 failed to dock with Salyut 6. One result of the investigation of the failure of the mission was that all future crews would have to have at least one cosmonaut with previous space flight experience. Kolodin was replaced by Makarov, and Soyuz 26 as flown had quite a different profile. Kolodin never flew in space.


09 October 1977 Soyuz 25 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Kovalyonok, Ryumin. Manned flight: Soyuz 25. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,860 kg. Perigee: 194 km. Apogee: 240 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 2.03 days.

Manned two crew. Unsuccessful mission. Failed to dock with Salyut 6. Recovered October 11, 1977 3:25 GMT.


10 December 1977 Soyuz 26 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Grechko, Romanenko. Manned flight: Soyuz 26. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 205 km. Apogee: 235 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 37.42 days.


Soyuz 7K-TSoyuz 7K-T

Credit: © Mark Wade. 63,829 bytes. 577 x 383 pixels.


Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried Yuri Romanenko, Georgi Grechko to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 27 to Earth. Conduct of joint experiments with the Salyut-6 scientific station. Recovered January 16, 1978 11:25 GMT.
10 January 1978 Soyuz 27 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Dzhanibekov, Makarov. Manned flight: Soyuz 27. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 190 km. Apogee: 237 km. Inclination: 51.7 deg. Duration: 64.95 days.

Manned two crew. Carried Oleg Makarov, Vladimir Dzhanibekov to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 26 to Earth. Docked with Salyut 6. Recovered March 16, 1978 11:19 GMT.


02 March 1978 Soyuz 28 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Gubarev, Remek. Manned flight: Soyuz 28. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 192 km. Apogee: 246 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 7.93 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivery to the Salyut-6 station of the first international 'Intercosmos' team consisting of A.A. Gubarev (USSR) and V. Remek (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments jointly developed by Soviet a nd Czechoslovak specialists. Recovered March 10, 1978 13:45 GMT.


15 June 1978 Soyuz 29 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. Manned flight: Soyuz 29. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 193 km. Apogee: 248 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 79.64 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station a crew consisting of V.V. Kovalenko and A.S. Ivanchenkov to conduct scientific and technological investigations and experiments. Recovered September 3, 1978 11:40 GMT.


26 August 1978 Soyuz 31 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Bykovsky, Jaehn. Manned flight: Soyuz 31. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 193 km. Apogee: 243 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 67.84 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Delivered to the Salyut-6 station the third international 'Intercosmos' crew consisting of V F Bykovsky (USSR) and S Jaehn (German Democratic Republic) to carry out scientific research and experiments.Recovered November 2, 1978 11:05 GMT.


25 February 1979 Soyuz 32 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Lyakhov, Ryumin. Manned flight: Soyuz 32. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 193 km. Apogee: 256 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 110.18 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported a team consisting of V A Lyakhov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 space station to conduct scientific investigations and experiments and repair work. Recovered June 15, 1979 16:18 GMT. Returned unmanned.


10 April 1979 Soyuz 33 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Ivanov Georgi, Rukavishnikov. Manned flight: Soyuz 33. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,860 kg. Perigee: 194 km. Apogee: 261 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 1.96 days.

Manned two crew. Flight under the Intercosmos programme of an international team consisting of N N Rukavishnikov (USSR) and G I Ivanov (Bulgaria). Unsuccessful mission. Failed to rendezvous with Salyut 6. Recovered April 12, 1979 16:35 GMT.


06 June 1979 Soyuz 34 Program: Salyut. Manned flight: Soyuz 34. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 192 km. Apogee: 254 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 73.76 days.

Docked with Salyut 6. Launched unmanned to provide return vehicle for Soyuz 32 crew of Lyakhov/Ryumin after Soyuz 33 primary propulsion system failure. Checked the operation of the spacecraft propulsion unit; transportated the crew of the Salyut-6 station back to earth. Recovered August 19, 1979 12:30 GMT.


09 April 1980 Soyuz 35 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Popov, Ryumin. Manned flight: Soyuz 35. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 197 km. Apogee: 247 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 55.06 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Carried crew comprising L I Popov and V V Ryumin to the Salyut-6 station to carry out scientific and technical research and experiments. Returned crew of Soyuz 36 to Earth. Recovered June 3, 1980 15:07 GMT. Landed 140 km SE Dzehezkazgan.


26 May 1980 Soyuz 36 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Farkas, Kubasov. Manned flight: Soyuz 36. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 190 km. Apogee: 263 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 65.87 days.

Transported the fifth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising V N Kubasov (USSR) and B Farkas (Hungary) to the Salyut-6 station to carry out scientific research and experiments. Returned crew of Soyuz 37 to Earth. Recovered July 31, 1980 15:15 GMT.


23 July 1980 Soyuz 37 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Gorbatko, Tuan. Manned flight: Soyuz 37. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 190 km. Apogee: 273 km. Inclination: 51.5 deg. Duration: 79.64 days.

Manned two crew. Transported to the Salyut-6 station the sixth international crew under the Intercosmos programme, comprising V V Gorbatko (USSR) and Pham Tuan (Viet Nam), to conduct scientific research and experiments. Returned crew of Soyuz 35 to Earth. Recovered October 11, 1980 9:50 GMT.


18 September 1980 Soyuz 38 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Romanenko, Tamayo-Mendez. Manned flight: Soyuz 38. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 195 km. Apogee: 257 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 7.86 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 station the seventh international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising Y V Romanenko (USSR) and A. Tomaio Mendez (Cuba), to conduct scientific research and experiments. Recovered September 26, 1980 15:54 GMT.


22 March 1981 Soyuz 39 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Dzhanibekov, Gurragcha. Manned flight: Soyuz 39. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 198 km. Apogee: 249 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 7.86 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station the eighth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising V A Dzhanibekov (USSR) and Z. Gurragchi (Mongolian People's Republic) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments. Recovered March 30, 1981 11:42 GMT.


14 May 1981 Soyuz 40 Program: Salyut. Flight Crew: Popov, Prunariu. Manned flight: Soyuz 40. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 192 km. Apogee: 270 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 7.86 days.

Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station the ninth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS programme, comprising L I Popov (USSR), and D. Prunariu (Romania), to conduct scientific research and experiments. Recovered May 22, 1981 13:58 GMT.


01 April 1982 Soyuz Almaz 4 Program: Almaz. Flight Crew: Malyshev, Laveykin.

Planned Soyuz flight to a dock with the Almaz OPS 4 space station. The mission was cancelled together with the Almaz program in 1981.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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