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astronautix.com Sever

L1 Complex 1961
L1 Complex 1961 - The earliest Sever project tackled such problems as manoeuvring in orbit, rendezvous and docking, use of manipulators to move station modules, and testing of lifting re-entry vehicles. Sever was 50% larger than Soyuz, which replaced it by late 1961 in OKB-1 studies.

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Manufacturer's Designation: 5K. Class: Manned. Type: Spacecraft. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: OKB-1.

Sever was the original OKB-1 design for a manned spacecraft to replace the Vostok. It was designed to tackle such problems as manoeuvring in orbit, rendezvous and docking, and testing of lifting re-entry vehicles. The Sever had the same ‘headlight’ shape as the later Soyuz re-entry vehicle, but was 50% larger. But application of the principal of moving all possible systems to a jettisonable living module resulted in the smaller Soyuz capsule design for the same number of crew.


Specification


Sever Chronology


01 March 1959 OKB-1 preliminary work on circumlunar spacecraft Program: Lunar L1.

The first design sketched out was known as Sever (North). The reentry capsule had the same configuration as the ultimate Soyuz design but was 50% larger. By summer 1959 Feoktistov had reduced the size to that of the later Soyuz, while retaining the three-man crew size.


01 January 1961 Competing designs for a reliable manned spacecraft to succeed Vostok.

The Soyuz or Sever designs would utilize body lift to reduce G forces and allo the crew to make re-entries at hyperbolic speeds - when returning from the moon, or Mars. An associated design was a manned orbital tug version of the Vostok capsule to assemble spacecraft in low earth orbit.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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