This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at www.astronautix.com

astronautix.com Raduga

YeSSS Unified Satell
YeSSS Unified Satell
Unified Satellite Communication System

Credit: NASA. 46,548 bytes. 640 x 424 pixels.


Article Number: 11F638. Code Name: Gran. Class: Communications. Type: Military. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: NPO PM.

Development of the first Soviet geosynchronous satellites began at the end of the 1960's. New operations and communications methods were required. In July 1974 a Proton DM put a Molniya-1 into geosynchronous orbit as a test. This proved methods for the specialised Raduga satellites that were to be stationed at 35 deg and 85 deg E. Construction of the first Raduga was completed in 1975. It was equipped with 2 x 3 barrelled repeaters. The Delta 1 repeater (V I Moguchev, Chief Designer) was for dedicated military communications, while the Delta 2 (M V Brodskiy) was used for national and international civilian communications. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Soviet eastern regions. Internationally designated Statsionar-1, Raduga represented the first use of the new universal spacecraft bus KAUR-3. The KAUR-3 spacecraft bus was 3-axis stabilised using liquid propellant micro-engines to within 0.25 degrees of the earth's centre. The single-unit body was equipped with solar panels, and active liquid-gas phase-change thermoregulation system, and a corrective engine unit for making orbital adjustments. 25 square metres of solar panels provided 1280 W of power.

Flight trials of Molniya-3 and Raduga continued until 1978, after which they were accepeted into military service. The State Trials Commission was headed by A A Maksimov, succeeded by General N F Shlykov. After the fall of the Soviet Union a price of $ 100 million was quoted for satellite and launch.


Specification

Total Mass: 1,954 kg.


Raduga Chronology


08 August 1970 GBM Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K.

Heavily instrumented suborbital flight to provide data to root out causes of continuing launch vehicle failures. Heavy mass model of an unspecified spacecraft used to simulate payload..


05 April 1972 Unified System of Satellite Communications (YeSSS)

Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On use of Molniya and Ekran for a unified satellite communications system' was issued. The YeSSS was defined as the Molniya-2 in elliptical orbit and Raduga (Statsionar) in geosynchronous orbit.


26 March 1974 Cosmos 637 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 2,000 kg. Perigee: 35,478 km. Apogee: 35,813 km. Inclination: 13.5 deg.

Test of Block D stage in geosynchronous satellite delivery role. Placed dummy Raduga satellite in geosynchronous orbit.


22 December 1975 Raduga 1 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,758 km. Apogee: 35,807 km. Inclination: 13.3 deg.

Statsionar-1. Provision of uninterrupted round-the-clock telephone and telegraph radio-communications system in the USSR, transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation.


11 September 1976 Raduga 2 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,704 km. Apogee: 35,866 km. Inclination: 13.1 deg.

Statsionar 1. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


24 July 1977 Raduga 3 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,763 km. Apogee: 35,853 km. Inclination: 12.7 deg.

Statsionar-2. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


19 July 1978 Raduga 4 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,757 km. Apogee: 35,854 km. Inclination: 12.3 deg.

Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


25 April 1979 Raduga 5 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,785 km. Apogee: 35,802 km. Inclination: 11.9 deg.

Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


20 February 1980 Raduga 6 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,780 km. Apogee: 35,816 km. Inclination: 11.4 deg.

Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.



Just a spaceJust a space

357 bytes. 105 x 105 pixels.


05 October 1980 Raduga 7 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,751 km. Apogee: 35,771 km. Inclination: 10.8 deg.

Radio, telegraph, TV. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


18 March 1981 Raduga 8 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,411 km. Apogee: 36,115 km. Inclination: 10.8 deg.

Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


31 July 1981 Raduga 9 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,760 km. Apogee: 35,776 km. Inclination: 10.3 deg.

Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


09 October 1981 Raduga 10 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,743 km. Apogee: 35,823 km. Inclination: 10.0 deg.

Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


26 November 1982 Raduga 11 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 36,337 km. Apogee: 36,708 km. Inclination: 8.5 deg.

Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


24 December 1982 Raduga s/n 22L Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. FAILURE: Stage 1 - vehicle failed at launch. Mass: 1,940 kg.
08 April 1983 Raduga 12 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,772 km. Apogee: 35,789 km. Inclination: 8.4 deg.

Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


25 August 1983 Raduga 13 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 36,323 km. Apogee: 36,447 km. Inclination: 8.0 deg.

Operation of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes.


15 February 1984 Raduga 14 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 2,000 kg. Perigee: 35,758 km. Apogee: 35,818 km. Inclination: 7.4 deg.

Stationed at 84 deg. E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes.


22 June 1984 Raduga 15 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,750 km. Apogee: 35,782 km. Inclination: 7.2 deg.

Stationed at 128 deg. E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes.


09 August 1985 Raduga 16 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,757 km. Apogee: 35,768 km. Inclination: 6.1 deg.

Stationed at 45 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting.


15 November 1985 Raduga 17 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,774 km. Apogee: 35,873 km. Inclination: 5.8 deg.

Stationed at 49 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting.


17 January 1986 Raduga 18 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,940 kg. Perigee: 35,909 km. Apogee: 36,493 km. Inclination: 5.8 deg.

Stationed at 335 deg. E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting.


25 October 1986 Raduga 19 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 36,252 km. Apogee: 36,353 km. Inclination: 5.1 deg.

Stationed at 36 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting.


19 March 1987 Raduga 20 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S86. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 36,922 km. Apogee: 37,159 km. Inclination: 5.1 deg.

Stationed at 85 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting.


10 December 1987 Raduga 21 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,789 km. Apogee: 35,793 km. Inclination: 3.9 deg.

Stationed at 128 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting.


20 October 1988 Raduga 22 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,784 km. Apogee: 35,798 km. Inclination: 2.9 deg.

Stationed at 35 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting.


14 April 1989 Raduga 23 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,781 km. Apogee: 35,789 km. Inclination: 2.6 deg.

Stationed at 336 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting.


15 December 1989 Raduga 24 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,786 km. Apogee: 35,813 km. Inclination: 1.9 deg.

Stationed at 45 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes.


15 February 1990 Raduga 25 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,779 km. Apogee: 35,795 km. Inclination: 1.7 deg.

Stationed at 70 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting.


20 December 1990 Raduga 26 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,777 km. Apogee: 35,826 km. Inclination: 1.0 deg.

Stationed at 85 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes.


28 February 1991 Raduga 27 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,773 km. Apogee: 35,800 km. Inclination: 1.1 deg.

Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes.


19 December 1991 Raduga 28 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,783 km. Apogee: 35,798 km. Inclination: 0.1 deg.

Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes.


25 March 1993 Raduga 29 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,778 km. Apogee: 35,802 km. Inclination: 1.0 deg.

Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes.


30 September 1993 Raduga 30 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,754 km. Apogee: 35,816 km. Inclination: 1.3 deg.

Stationed at 83 deg E. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes.


18 February 1994 Raduga 31 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 36,483 km. Apogee: 36,483 km. Inclination: 1.5 deg.

Stationed at 44 deg E. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes.


28 December 1994 Raduga 32 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 35,784 km. Apogee: 35,793 km. Inclination: 1.4 deg.

Stationed at 70 deg E.


19 February 1996 Raduga s/n 44L Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. FAILURE: No second Block DM-2 ignition (blocked LOX valve). Block DM-2 propellant automatically jettisoned. Mass: 1,965 kg. Perigee: 259 km. Apogee: 36,582 km. Inclination: 47.2 deg.

Secret military name for Raduga program is Gran'.


05 July 1999 Raduga Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82KM.

Carried a Russian Defence Ministry communications satellite. First attempted flight of the Khrunichev Briz-M upper stage in place of the usual Block DM. After the second stage explosion the remainder of the vehicle survived for 45 seconds before breaking up. Debris landed near Karaganda. As a result of this accident the Kazakh government suspended launches from Baikonur pending Russian agreement to pay back part of rent owed.



Bibliography:



Back to Index
Last update 12 March 2001.
Contact Mark Wade with any corrections or comments.
Conditions for use of drawings, pictures, or other materials from this site..
© Mark Wade, 2001 .