|OKM Spaceplane - |
8,530 bytes. 288 x 181 pixels.
In the 1980's NPO Energia and OKB Molniya studied designs of spaceplanes smaller than Buran to replace Soyuz and Progress spacecraft for space station crew rotation/replenishment tasks. Molniya favoured an air-launched solution (see MAKS) while Energia favoured conventional rocket launch. The earliest design, the OK-M, was designed to be launched by the Zenit launch vehicle. The aerodynamic scheme and double-delta planform of the OK-M was derived from Buran. A notable difference was a unitary fuselage (no cargo bay doors - payloads were extracted through a hatch at the rear). The crew cabin was not connected to the payload bay. After entering orbit the nose of the spaceplane hinged up to reveal an androgynous docking mechanism and crew hatch. in which the crew docked with the station through an androgynous docking apparatus. The thermal protection system would use the tiles and carbon-carbon nose cap material developed for Buran. The engine, guidance, and control systems were derived from those developed for the Soyuz-TM. Two 400 kg main engines were supplemented by a reaction control system of 26 x 50 kgf and 8 x 5 kgf thrusters. These were all housed in two gondolas positioned on either side of the vertical stabiliser (leaving the base free for the payload hatch). In orbit a 25 square meter solar panel would be deployed, supplementing 16 batteries of 1000 A-hours capacity, delivering a maximum of 2.5 kW.
32,992 bytes. 504 x 458 pixels.
Total booster mass at lift-off with the OK-M was 400 tonnes. The OK-M was mated to the Zenit by a monocoque transition section, on which four solid abort motors of 25 tonnes thrust each were fitted. These would push the spaceplane away from the Zenit in the case of a first stage launch failure. At second stage ignition, they were ignited to provide an extra boost. The Zenit inserted the spaceplane into a 120 km altitude orbit at 51 degrees inclination. The OK-M used its own engines to manoeuvre into a higher orbit.
6,003 bytes. 79 x 435 pixels.
Craft.Crew Size: 6. Total Length: 15.0 m. Maximum Diameter: 5.6 m. Total Mass: 15,000 kg. Total Payload: 3,500 kg. Total Propellants: 1,800 kg. Primary Engine Thrust: 800 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
29,092 bytes. 297 x 604 pixels.