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Foton
Foton
Foton satellite in its assembly hall, with its booster and payload shroud. The cylindrical module at the top is a Nauka module.

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Manufacturer's Designation: 31KS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: OKB-1.

Zenit reconnaissance satellites from the beginning carried small supplemental experimental packages, for example meteoroid or cosmic particle detectors. In 1968, aboard Zenit number 80, the Nauka autonomous sub-satellite was first flown. The Nauka containers served a dual purpose. Mounted on the forward end of the re-entry sphere, they provided ballast on the spacecraft during its mission. When the Zenit had completed its work, the Nauka would be released for autonomous flight. Over 40 Nauka containers were installed on Zenit-2 and Zenit-2M spacecraft, and they achieved noteworthy results in scientific and military space research. Naukas were used to study radiation belts; establish radiation standards; establish the characteristics of the earth-space interface; and develop new instruments. 23 autonomous Nauka sub-satellites undertook methodical research into geophysics, meteorology, and cosmic rays. Others tested new systems for the Yantar reconnaissance satellite.


Specification


Nauka Chronology


21 March 1968 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
21 June 1968 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
25 September 1968 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
12 November 1969 Nauka Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
06 May 1971 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
24 June 1971 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
07 October 1971 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
03 December 1971 Nauka Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure.
04 March 1972 Nauka Cosmos 477 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
06 April 1972 Nauka Cosmos 484 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
17 May 1972 Nauka Cosmos 490 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
15 September 1972 Nauka Cosmos 518 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
18 October 1972 Nauka Cosmos 525 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
22 March 1973 Nauka Cosmos 552 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
25 April 1973 Nauka Cosmos 555 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
25 May 1973 Nauka Cosmos 561 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
03 October 1973 Cosmos 596 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
24 January 1974 Cosmos 629 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
14 March 1974 Nauka Cosmos 635 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
26 July 1974 Nauka Cosmos 669 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
30 August 1974 Nauka Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. FAILURE: Failure.
01 November 1974 Cosmos 692 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
26 March 1975 Nauka Cosmos 721 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
18 April 1975 Nauka Cosmos 728 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
21 May 1975 Nauka Cosmos 731 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
27 June 1975 Nauka Cosmos 747 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
23 September 1975 Cosmos 769 Nauka Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
17 October 1975 Nauka Cosmos 776 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
21 November 1975 Nauka Cosmos 780 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
03 December 1975 Nauka Cosmos 784 Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
12 August 1976 Nauka Cosmos 848 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
22 September 1976 Nauka Cosmos 856 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
01 November 1976 Nauka Cosmos 865 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
17 March 1977 Nauka Cosmos 898 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
31 May 1977 Nauka Cosmos 914 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
12 December 1977 Nauka Cosmos 966 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
27 December 1977 Nauka Cosmos 973 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
05 May 1978 Nauka Cosmos 1004 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
19 September 1978 Nauka Cosmos 1032 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
14 December 1978 Nauka Cosmos 1061 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
11 January 1979 Nauka Cosmos 1070 Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
16 February 1979 Nauka Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Failure.
25 May 1979 Nauka Cosmos 1102 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
12 June 1979 Nauka Cosmos 1106 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
17 August 1979 Cosmos 1122 Nauka Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.

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Last update 12 March 2001.
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