This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at www.astronautix.com

astronautix.com Molniya-1T

Kaluga Museum
Kaluga Museum
Main hall of Tsiolkovsky Museum in Kaluga

Credit: © Mark Wade. 66,414 bytes. 585 x 391 pixels.


Article Number: 11F658. Class: Communications. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: NPO PM.

Modernised Molniya-1 communications satellite with the 'Beta' retransmitter; began flight tests in 1970. The system was operational by 1972. Communications stations for the Rocket Forces, Air Force, and Navy were in place by 1975 (Ruchey Command and Control System). The satellite itself was part of the Korund system, which allowed strategic communications and telephony with military units in Siberia and the Far East. The complete system included 8 spacecraft on orbit, replenished as necessary. The satellite reliability improved over time. The system used Surgut secure radio lines and had a 20 year system life, with 70 launches total. The improved Korund-M system began flight trials in 1983 and was accepted into military service in 1987.


Specification

Total Length: 4.4 m. Maximum Diameter: 1.4 m. Total Mass: 1,656 kg.


Molniya-1T Chronology


30 June 1970 Molniya Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. FAILURE: Failure in year noted; exact date unknown. .
22 January 1976 Molniya 1-32 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 991 km. Apogee: 39,476 km. Inclination: 62.3 deg.

Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international coope ration scheme).


11 March 1976 Molniya 1-33 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 151 km. Apogee: 37,773 km. Inclination: 62.6 deg.

Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international coope ration scheme). Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.


19 March 1976 Molniya 1-34 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 617 km. Apogee: 39,722 km. Inclination: 62.7 deg.

Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international coope ration scheme).


23 July 1976 Molniya 1-35 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 483 km. Apogee: 38,911 km. Inclination: 62.9 deg.

Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international coope ration scheme).


24 March 1977 Molniya 1-36 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 714 km. Apogee: 39,676 km. Inclination: 61.8 deg.

Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international coope ration scheme). Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.


24 June 1977 Molniya 1-37 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 106 km. Apogee: 4,564 km. Inclination: 62.6 deg.

Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network.


30 August 1977 Molniya 1-38 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 187 km. Apogee: 38,159 km. Inclination: 62.6 deg.

Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system; transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T.


03 March 1978 Molniya 1-39 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 401 km. Apogee: 39,957 km. Inclination: 62.0 deg.

Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network.


02 June 1978 Molniya 1-40 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 265 km. Apogee: 40,067 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg.

Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network.


14 July 1978 Molniya 1-41 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 260 km. Apogee: 38,306 km. Inclination: 61.8 deg.

Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


23 August 1978 Molniya 1-42 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 495 km. Apogee: 39,433 km. Inclination: 62.0 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


12 April 1979 Molniya 1-43 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 199 km. Apogee: 39,936 km. Inclination: 64.0 deg.

Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


31 July 1979 Molniya 1-44 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 550 km. Apogee: 39,806 km. Inclination: 63.3 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


20 October 1979 Molniya 1-45 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 93 km. Apogee: 39,615 km. Inclination: 61.7 deg.

Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


11 January 1980 Molniya 1-46 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 103 km. Apogee: 28,891 km. Inclination: 63.2 deg.

Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


21 June 1980 Molniya 1-47 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 98 km. Apogee: 24,508 km. Inclination: 63.6 deg.

Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


16 November 1980 Molniya 1-48 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 870 km. Apogee: 39,291 km. Inclination: 62.4 deg.

Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


30 January 1981 Molniya 1-49 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 1,571 km. Apogee: 38,759 km. Inclination: 63.7 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-41. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radiocommunications system in the USSR; transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


24 June 1981 Molniya 1-50 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 190 km. Apogee: 39,708 km. Inclination: 63.9 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-42. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


17 November 1981 Molniya 1-51 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 134 km. Apogee: 39,457 km. Inclination: 63.5 deg.

Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


23 December 1981 Molniya 1-52 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 2,097 km. Apogee: 38,267 km. Inclination: 63.8 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-45. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


26 February 1982 Molniya 1-53 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 1,456 km. Apogee: 38,895 km. Inclination: 63.2 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-47. Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


29 May 1982 Molniya 1-54 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 259 km. Apogee: 40,054 km. Inclination: 64.3 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-44. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


21 July 1982 Molniya 1-55 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 160 km. Apogee: 39,618 km. Inclination: 63.9 deg.

Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


08 December 1982 Cosmos 1423 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 348 km. Apogee: 571 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg.

Intended to replace Molniya 1-48; failed. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.


16 March 1983 Molniya 1-56 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 1,442 km. Apogee: 39,043 km. Inclination: 63.9 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-50. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


02 April 1983 Molniya 1-57 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 802 km. Apogee: 39,551 km. Inclination: 63.9 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-52. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


19 July 1983 Molniya 1-58 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 200 km. Apogee: 25,838 km. Inclination: 63.5 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-49. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


21 November 1983 Molniya 1-59 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 1,742 km. Apogee: 38,678 km. Inclination: 64.2 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


17 March 1984 Molniya 1-60 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 277 km. Apogee: 40,011 km. Inclination: 64.2 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-51. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


10 August 1984 Molniya 1-61 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,935 km. Apogee: 38,330 km. Inclination: 64.2 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


24 August 1984 Molniya 1-62 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 836 km. Apogee: 40,372 km. Inclination: 63.9 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-54. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


14 December 1984 Molniya 1-63 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,605 km. Apogee: 38,722 km. Inclination: 64.0 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-55. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


22 August 1985 Molniya 1-64 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,987 km. Apogee: 38,370 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-61. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


23 October 1985 Molniya 1-65 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,104 km. Apogee: 39,239 km. Inclination: 64.5 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-58. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


28 October 1985 Molniya 1-66 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,656 km. Apogee: 38,699 km. Inclination: 64.1 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-56. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


30 July 1986 Molniya 1-67 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,595 km. Apogee: 38,765 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-59. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


05 September 1986 Molniya 1-68 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,710 km. Apogee: 38,643 km. Inclination: 64.6 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-57. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


16 November 1986 Molniya 1-69 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,506 km. Apogee: 38,824 km. Inclination: 64.0 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-60. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


26 December 1986 Molniya 1-70 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,070 km. Apogee: 39,283 km. Inclination: 64.2 deg.

Replaced Molniya 1-62. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


11 March 1988 Molniya 1-71 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,199 km. Apogee: 39,149 km. Inclination: 63.8 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


22 March 1988 Molniya 1-72 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 2,121 km. Apogee: 38,228 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


12 August 1988 Molniya 1-73 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,726 km. Apogee: 38,629 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


28 December 1988 Molniya 1-74 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 1,358 km. Apogee: 39,002 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation.


15 February 1989 Molniya 1-75 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 2,111 km. Apogee: 38,249 km. Inclination: 63.5 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation.


27 September 1989 Molniya 1-76 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,800 kg. Perigee: 783 km. Apogee: 39,572 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


26 April 1990 Molniya 1-77 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 724 km. Apogee: 39,625 km. Inclination: 64.4 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


11 August 1990 Molniya 1-78 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 1,099 km. Apogee: 39,251 km. Inclination: 63.8 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation.


23 November 1990 Molniya 1-79 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 1,100 km. Apogee: 39,247 km. Inclination: 64.6 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


15 February 1991 Molniya 1-80 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 1,738 km. Apogee: 38,619 km. Inclination: 63.2 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


18 June 1991 Molniya 1-81 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 1,478 km. Apogee: 38,875 km. Inclination: 63.4 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


01 August 1991 Molniya 1-82 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 763 km. Apogee: 39,591 km. Inclination: 64.5 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


04 March 1992 Molniya 1-83 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 823 km. Apogee: 39,530 km. Inclination: 63.2 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system and transmission of Central Television programmes.


06 August 1992 Molniya 1-84 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 1,060 km. Apogee: 39,294 km. Inclination: 63.0 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


13 January 1993 Molniya 1-85 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 528 km. Apogee: 39,822 km. Inclination: 63.4 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


26 May 1993 Molniya 1-86 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 681 km. Apogee: 39,672 km. Inclination: 62.9 deg.

Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network.


22 December 1993 Molniya 1-87 Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 437 km. Apogee: 39,188 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg.

Operation of the long range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system.


14 December 1994 Molniya-1T Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 516 km. Apogee: 39,833 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg.
14 August 1996 Molniya-1T Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 645 km. Apogee: 39,701 km. Inclination: 62.9 deg.
24 September 1997 Molniya-1T Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Mass: 1,600 kg. Perigee: 580 km. Apogee: 39,771 km. Inclination: 62.9 deg.
28 September 1998 Molniya-1T Program: Molniya. Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. Perigee: 506 km. Apogee: 39,840 km. Inclination: 62.9 deg.

Bibliography:



Back to Index
Last update 12 March 2001.
Contact Mark Wade with any corrections or comments.
Conditions for use of drawings, pictures, or other materials from this site..
© Mark Wade, 2001 .