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Soviet Platform 85
Soviet Platform 85
Soviet artists concept of orbital plarform incorporating the Salyut 7 station, 1985

Credit: DoD via Marcus Lindroos. 55,502 bytes. 632 x 480 pixels.


Manufacturer's Designation: DOS 17KS-12701. Class: Manned. Type: Space Station. Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: Korolev.

The design of an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station was authorised as part of the third generation of Soviet space systems in a 17 February 1976 decree. At that time it was planned that the two stations (DOS-7 and DOS-8) would be equipped with two docking ports at either end of the station and an additional two ports at the sides of the forward small diameter compartment. By the time of the draft project in August 1978 this had evolved to the final Mir configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. Up to that time it was planned that the ports would provide docking positions for 7 tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These would use the Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, but would be equipped with long laboratory modules in place of the descent module and orbital module.

Following the decision to cancel Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station programme, a resolution of February 1979 consolidated the programs, with the docking ports to be reinforced to accommodate 20 tonne space station modules based on Chelomei's TKS manned ferry spacecraft. NPO Energia was made responsible for the overall space station, but subcontracted the work to KB Salyut due to the press of in-house work on Energia, Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, and Progress. The subcontractor began work in the summer of 1979, with drawings being released in 1982-1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels (taken from Almaz), and the new Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Altair satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, and Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers.


Soyuz-Mir-KvantSoyuz-Mir-Kvant - Soyuz-Mir-Kvant-Soyuz Isometric

Credit: © Mark Wade. 5,164 bytes. 451 x 256 pixels.


By early 1984 all work on Mir ground to a halt as all resources were put on getting the Buran space shuttle into flight test. This changed in the spring 1984 when Glushko was called into the office of the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defence and ordered to orbit Mir by the 27th Communist Party Congress in the spring of 1986. By the end of 1984 the static and dynamic test models of the station had been completed. The ground test model of the station was delivered in December 1984. The use of this full-fidelity test article, an approach taken on the Almaz program, was new to the civilian DOS project.

A major problem was that the station ended up one tonne heavier than designed due to the final weight of the electrical cabling Even after removing most of the experimental equipment (it would have to be delivered to the station later by ferry craft) it still exceeded the performance of the Proton booster to the planned 65 degree inclination orbit. The decision was finally taken in January 1985 to use the same 51.6 degree orbit as Salyut, although this would reduce photographic coverage of the Soviet Union. Meanwhile problems with development of the new software for the Salyut 5B computer lead to the decision to launch Mir with the old analogue Argon computer from Salyut DOS-17K. The digital computer would have to be installed later in orbit.

By April 1985 it was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still make the spring 1986 launch date. The decision was taken on Cosmonautics Day (April 12) to ship the flight model to Baikonur and conduct the systems testing and integration there. Mir arrived at the launch site on 6 May 1985. 1100 of 2500 cables required rework based on results of testing of the ground test model at Khrunichev. In October 1985 Mir was rolled outside of its clean room to conduct communications tests of the Altair system with the Cosmos 1700 satellite already in orbit.


Mir 1985Mir 1985 - Mir according to 1985 Department of Defense report.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 53,624 bytes. 628 x 438 pixels.


The first launch attempt on 16 February 1996 at very low temperatures was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed. The second attempt on 20 February was successful. The political deadline had been met.

The early launch of Mir left the planners without Soyuz spacecraft or modules to launch to it. The decision was taken to launch Soyuz T-15 on a unique dual station mission. The Soyuz would first dock with Salyut 7, which was dead in space, and completely repair the station. They then would fly in their Soyuz to Mir, and put it into initial operation. This spectacular mission marked a new maturity in the Soviet space program.

Spacecraft Description

The Mir base block was the backbone of the Mir space station. It was the principal space station control element and contained the main computers, communications equipment, kitchen and hygiene facilities, and primary living quarters. The module provided 90 cubic meters of habitable volume. The base block included six docking ports used as permanent attachment points for the other station modules and for temporary docking of manned and unmanned resupply ships.

Mir was equipped with its own orbital manoeuvring engines. These could not be used after the arrival of Kvant (the first station module), but the base block still provided the principal propellant storage tanks and primary attitude control for the entire space station.

The base block was divided into four compartments, designated as the working, transfer, intermediate and assembly compartments. All but the assembly compartment were pressurised. A small airlock was also available for experiments or for the release of small satellites or refuse.

Spacecraft systems

Power to the base block was initially provided by 2 x 38 sq. meter arrays providing 9 kW. A third array was added to the base block in 1987 to bring total power to 10.1 kW. Additional power from visiting Progress-M and Soyuz-TM vehicles and other station modules added to the station's total supply as it grew. The arrays charged 12 NiCd batteries. The base block was equipped with an integrated refuellable pressure-fed propulsion system consisting of 32 x 137 N attitude control thrusters and 2 x 2.9 kN thrusters for orbital manoeuvre. The system used N2O4/UDMH hypergolic propellants.

The life support system maintained the station's environment at 18-28 degrees. C and 20-70 percent humidity. The Vozdukh electrolytic system was used to recycle station atmosphere with a backup chemical scrubbing system. Station pointing could be controlled to within 15 arc-min.


Mir 1997Mir 1997

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Two primary flight control computers provide most station control functions. Star sensors, infrared Earth horizon sensors, sun sensors, magnetometers, gyros, and accelerometers were used for attitude determination. Communication with the ground was via 11-14 GHz links either directly to ground stations or through Luch geosynchronous relay satellites. Rendezvous and docking was conducted automatically by transport spacecraft through use of the Kurs system transponders located at each docking port Mir.

Equipment originally delivered with the base block included: - Splav-2 crystal growth facility - Zona zone melt facility - Kashtan electrophoresis unit - Bulgarian Rozhen photometer - Spektr-256 and MKS-M spectrometers - Pion-M multipurpose physics unit (41 kg) - Biryuza semiconductor materials unit Ruchei electrophoresis installation - Yantar metal coating equipment - Mariye magnetic spectrometer - Korund furnace (136 kg).


Specification

Craft.Crew Size: 12. Total Length: 13.1 m. Total Mass: 21,000 kg. Total Propellants: 1,200 kg. Primary Engine Thrust: 600 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Main Engine Isp: 305 sec. Electric system: 2.50 total average kW. Electrical System: Solar panels 29.73 m span, area: 76 sq. m.


Mir Chronology


17 February 1976 Energia, Buran, Mir, Luch, Potok approved; N1 formally cancelled. Launch Vehicle: N1, N1F, Energia.

Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On work on Energia-Buran, DOS-7K nos. 7 and 8, Gamma. Geyzer (Potok), and Altair (Luch) and cancellation of the N1' was issued. The design of an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station was authorised as part of the third generation of Soviet space systems in a decree. At that time it was planned that the two stations (DOS-7 and DOS-8) would be equipped with two docking ports at either end of the station and an additional two ports at the sides of the forward small diameter compartment. Luch and Potok were elements of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) deployed in the first half of the 1980's. Luch satellites, analogous to the US TDRS, provided communications service to the Mir space station, Buran space shuttle, Soyuz-TM spacecraft, military satellites, and the TsUPK ground control center. They also served to provide mobile fleet communications for the Soviet Navy.


01 August 1978 Mir draft project completed Program: Mir.

By this time Mir had evolved to the final configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. It was planned that the ports would provide docking positions for 7 tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These would use the Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, but would be equipped with long laboratory modules in place of the descent module and orbital module.



Mir simulatorMir simulator - Mir simulator at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center

Credit: © Mark Wade. 44,198 bytes. 572 x 394 pixels.


01 February 1979 Almaz cancelled and consolidated with Mir

Following the decision to cancel Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station programme, a resolution consolidated the programs, with the Mir docking ports to be reinforced to accommodate 20 tonne space station modules based on Chelomei's TKS manned ferry spacecraft. NPO Energia was made responsible for the overall space station, but subcontracted the work to KB Salyut due to the press of in-house work on Energia, Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, and Progress. The subcontractor began work in the summer of 1979.


01 January 1982 Mir drawing release

Drawings were released in 1982-1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels (taken from Almaz), and the new Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Altair satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, and Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers.


01 November 1983 37KS Modules for Mir cancelled, replaced by FGB modules.

Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 tonnes). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 tonnes and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurised volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled. Work on the 37KE experimental module (Kvant) and the 37KB Buran modules continued. The function of the 37KS modules was taken up by modules by KB Salyut derived from the FGB. A competing proposal from NPO Energia for a unified spacecraft that combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir was rejected.


01 March 1984 Glushko ordered to launch Mir by March 1986 Program: Mir.


MirMir - View of Mir in space.

Credit: NASA. 42,663 bytes. 640 x 320 pixels.


By early 1984 work on Mir ground to a halt as all resources were put on getting the Buran space shuttle into flight test. This changed in the spring 1984 when Glushko was called into the office of the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defence and ordered to orbit Mir by the 27th Communist Party Congress in the spring of 1986.
01 December 1984 Ground test articles of Mir completed

By the end of 1984 the static and dynamic test models of the station had been completed. The ground test model of the station was delivered in December 1984. The use of this full-fidelity test article, an approach taken on the Almaz program, was new to the civilian DOS project.


12 April 1985 Decision to ship Mir to Baikonur

It was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still make the spring 1986 launch date. The decision was taken on Cosmonautics Day to ship the flight model to Baikonur and conduct the systems testing and integration there.


06 May 1985 Mir space station delivered to Baikonur Program: Mir.

1100 of 2500 cables required rework based on results of testing of the ground test model at Khrunichev.


02 August 1985 EVA Soyuz T-15-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Dzhanibekov, Savinykh.

Installed solar array.


01 October 1985 Mir free-air communications tests. Program: Mir.

Mir was rolled outside of its clean room to conduct communications tests of the Altair system with the Cosmos 1700 satellite already in orbit.



Shuttle/Mir 1993Shuttle/Mir 1993 - ISS Phase One Shuttle/Mir. The US Space Shuttle docks with Russia's "Mir" space station.

Credit: NASA via Marcus Lindroos. 37,785 bytes. 630 x 480 pixels.


16 February 1986 First attempt to launch Mir. Program: Mir.

The first launch attempt at very low temperatures was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed.


20 February 1986 Mir Program: Mir. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K. Mass: 20,100 kg. Perigee: 387 km. Apogee: 395 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg.

The core module of Russia's new space station was placed in an initial orbit of 172 x 301 km. It was established in its operational orbit on 6 March. It passed just 10 km from Salyut 7 on 8 March. First use of the geosynchronous Luch relay sattelite for communications with the station was on 29 March. Equipment launched with the core module included:

Total costs of Mir from February 1986 through return of Soyuz TM-9 in April 1989 were given as 1.471 billion rubles. This sum ncluded Mir, Kvant, all Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and 2 new modules. As of April 1989 50% of the scientific equipment was inoperable and the interior was cramped due to lack of extension modules. Electric power supply problems were first reported in April 1989 (batteries would not hold charge from panels). Mass 27,300 kg as of January 1990. Complex mass with Kvant-2 65,790 kg; with Kristall, Soyuz TM, and Progress M, 89,990 kg. Additional Details: Mir.



Mir CutawayMir Cutaway

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28 May 1986 EVA Soyuz T-15-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Kizim, Solovyov Vladimir.

Installed truss.


31 May 1986 EVA Soyuz T-15-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Kizim, Solovyov Vladimir.

Tested truss structure.


11 April 1987 EVA Soyuz TM-2-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Romanenko, Laveykin.

Removed bag from docking unit that interfered with Kvant docking.


12 June 1987 EVA Soyuz TM-2-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Romanenko, Laveykin.

Began solar array installation.


16 June 1987 EVA Soyuz TM-2-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Romanenko, Laveykin.

Continued solar array installation.


26 February 1988 EVA Soyuz TM-4-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Titov Vladimir, Manarov.

Completed solar array installation. Inspected exterior of station.


30 June 1988 EVA Soyuz TM-4-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Titov Vladimir, Manarov.


Mir Complex CutawayMir Complex Cutaway - Cutaway drawing of the Mir space station.

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Began repair of TTM telescope.
20 October 1988 EVA Soyuz TM-4-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Titov Vladimir, Manarov.

Completed repair of TTM telescope. Tested new spacesuit.


09 December 1988 EVA Soyuz TM-7-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Volkov Aleksandr, Chretien.

Deployed ERA (French experiment).


08 January 1990 EVA Soyuz TM-8-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Viktorenko, Serebrov.

Installed star tracker.


11 January 1990 EVA Soyuz TM-8-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Viktorenko, Serebrov.

Retrieved and installed material samples


26 January 1990 EVA Soyuz TM-8-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Viktorenko, Serebrov.

Tested spacesuit. Examined exterior of Kvant 2.


01 February 1990 EVA Soyuz TM-8-4 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Viktorenko, Serebrov.

Serebrov tested SPK manoeuvring unit.


05 February 1990 EVA Soyuz TM-8-5 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Viktorenko, Serebrov.


Mir Phase 5Mir Phase 5 - Configuration of the Mir space station in the fifth phase of assembly.

Credit: © Mark Wade. 7,317 bytes. 512 x 304 pixels.


Viktorenko tested SPK manoeuvring unit.
17 July 1990 EVA Soyuz TM-9-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Balandin.

Repaired Soyuz TM-9 insulation rip.


26 July 1990 EVA Soyuz TM-9-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Balandin.

Dismantled equipment. Temporarily closed damaged hatch.


29 October 1990 EVA Soyuz TM-10-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Manakov, Strekalov.

Attempt to repair Kvant 2 hatch.


07 January 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-11-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Afanasyev, Manarov.

Completed repair of Kvant 2 hatch.


23 January 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-11-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Afanasyev, Manarov.

Installed Strela boom on Mir.


26 January 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-11-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Afanasyev, Manarov.

Installed solar array supports.


25 April 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-11-4 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Afanasyev, Manarov.


Orlan DM SpacesuitOrlan DM Spacesuit - Orlan DM spacesuit used on Mir.

Credit: Andy Salmon. 26,067 bytes. 250 x 493 pixels.


Inspected Kurs docking system antenna.
25 June 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-12-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Artsebarsky, Krikalyov.

Replaced Kurs docking system antenna.


28 June 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-12-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Artsebarsky, Krikalyov.

Attached TREK cosmic ray collector to exterior of station.


15 July 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-12-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Artsebarsky, Krikalyov.

Began Sofora girder construction. Sofora mounting platform installed.


19 July 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-12-4 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Artsebarsky, Krikalyov.

Began assembly of Sofora girder.


23 July 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-12-5 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Artsebarsky, Krikalyov.

Continued assembly of Sofora girder.


27 July 1991 EVA Soyuz TM-12-6 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Artsebarsky, Krikalyov.

Completed assembly of Sofora girder.


01 January 1992 Work on military Spektr version cancelled

The original Spektr design was to be armed with Oktava interceptor rockets and equipped with sensors to identify and track ballistic missile re-entry vehicles as well as discriminate decoys. In 1992, as directed by the Soviet Union's military and political leadership, all work on such projects was discontinued. The Spektr module was mothballed, then later converted into a civilian platform, partially funded by the United States.



SPK MMUSPK MMU - SPK Manned Maneuvering Unit

Credit: Andy Salmon. 35,764 bytes. 346 x 469 pixels.


20 February 1992 EVA Soyuz TM-13-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Volkov Aleksandr, Krikalyov.

Dismantled equipment.


08 July 1992 EVA Soyuz TM-14-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Viktorenko, Kaleri.

Inspected gyrodyne orientation flywheels.


03 September 1992 EVA Soyuz TM-15-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Avdeyev.

Began installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower.


07 September 1992 EVA Soyuz TM-15-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Avdeyev.

Continued installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower.


11 September 1992 EVA Soyuz TM-15-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Avdeyev.

Completed installation of VDU thruster pod on Sofora tower.


15 September 1992 EVA Soyuz TM-15-4 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Avdeyev.

Installed Kurs docking system antenna on Kristall module.


19 April 1993 EVA Soyuz TM-16-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Manakov, Polishchuk.


Mir against HorizonMir against Horizon - The Mir station seen against the horizon during one of the Shuttle-Mir missions.

Credit: NASA. 45,184 bytes. 640 x 481 pixels.


Began installation of Kvant 1 solar array drive unit.
01 May 1993 Mir-Shuttle Docking Module proposed

In discussions regarding docking the US Shuttle with the Mir space station, NASA expressed concern about the clearances between the Shuttle and Mir's solar panels when using the docking port designed for Buran on the Kristall module. The Russians thought NASA overly cautious, but NPO Energia offered a solution - a modified version of the Buran SO, to be delivered by the Shuttle. The specialised SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station. In the 1992 concept the module would be delivered by a Progress-M tug to Mir-2 and included a lateral EVA hatch.


18 June 1993 EVA Soyuz TM-16-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Manakov, Polishchuk.

Completed installation of Kvant 1 solar array drive unit.


16 September 1993 EVA Soyuz TM-17-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Tsibliyev, Serebrov.

Began installation of Rapana truss.


20 September 1993 EVA Soyuz TM-17-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Tsibliyev, Serebrov.

Completed installation of Rapana truss.


28 September 1993 EVA Soyuz TM-17-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Tsibliyev, Serebrov.


ToruToru - TORU control station, exhibited at the Russian Pavillion, Hannover Expo 2000.

Credit: © Mark Wade. 33,752 bytes. 579 x 390 pixels.


Installed material samples and retrieved experiment packages. Documented external condition of Mir.
22 October 1993 EVA Soyuz TM-17-4 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Tsibliyev, Serebrov.

Retrieved micrometeoroid detectors.


29 October 1993 EVA Soyuz TM-17-5 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Tsibliyev, Serebrov.

Installed equipment on exterior of Mir


01 January 1994 Mir-Shuttle Docking Module design approved.

The simplified SO design deleted the lateral airlock. Qualification was relatively straightforward since the basic structure of the Soyuz BO orbital module was used, and the APDS androgynous docking port installation had already been proven on Soyuz-TM16. The draft project was completed in December 1993.


01 April 1994 Mir-Shuttle Docking Module Mock-up delivered to NASA
09 September 1994 EVA Soyuz TM-19-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Malenchenko, Musabayev.

Repaired station external insulation. Checked docking port.


13 September 1994 EVA Soyuz TM-19-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Malenchenko, Musabayev.

Checked out equipment on exterior of Mir.


12 May 1995 EVA Soyuz TM-21-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Dezhurov, Strekalov.

Retracted solar array.


17 May 1995 EVA Soyuz TM-21-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Dezhurov, Strekalov.

Began installation of solar array.


22 May 1995 EVA Soyuz TM-21-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Dezhurov, Strekalov.

Completed installation of solar array.


28 May 1995 EVA Soyuz TM-21-4 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Dezhurov, Strekalov.

Repositioned docking adapter.


02 June 1995 EVA Soyuz TM-21-5 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Dezhurov, Strekalov.

Repositioned docking adapter.


07 June 1995 Mir-Shuttle Docking Module delivered.

Mir-Shuttle Docking Module flight article reached the Kennedy Space Center. It would be docked to the Mir station on November 14, 1995 at the Kristall module's axial docking port.


14 July 1995 EVA STS-71-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Budarin.

Repaired solar array. Inspected exterior of station.


19 July 1995 EVA STS-71-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Budarin.

Retrieved TREK detector.


21 July 1995 EVA STS-71-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Budarin.

Installed Miras spectrometer.


20 October 1995 EVA Soyuz TM-22-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Avdeyev, Reiter.

Sample cassettes installed in ESEF (European Science Exposure Facility).


08 December 1995 EVA Soyuz TM-22-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Gidzenko, Avdeyev.

Repositioned docking adapter.


08 February 1996 EVA Soyuz TM-22-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Gidzenko, Reiter.

Retrieved and installed material samples


15 March 1996 EVA Soyuz TM-23-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov.

Telescopic boom installed.


27 March 1996 EVA STS-76-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Godwin, Clifford.

Attached MEEP materials exposure experiment to outside of Mir (retrieved on STS-86).


20 May 1996 EVA Soyuz TM-23-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov.

Installed MCSA solar array.


24 May 1996 EVA Soyuz TM-23-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov.

Deployed MCSA solar array.


30 May 1996 EVA Soyuz TM-23-4 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov.

Multi-Spectral Scanner installed.


06 June 1996 EVA Soyuz TM-23-5 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov.

Retrieved and installed material samples


13 June 1996 EVA Soyuz TM-23-6 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov.

Assembled truss. Deployed SAR radar antenna.


02 December 1996 EVA Soyuz TM-24-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Korzun, Kaleri.

Began installation of MCSA solar array cables.


09 December 1996 EVA Soyuz TM-24-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Korzun, Kaleri.

Completed external cable installation for MCSA solar array. Installed antenna.


29 April 1997 EVA Soyuz TM-25-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Tsibliyev, Linenger.

Test of new spacesuits. Retrieved and installed external equipment.


22 August 1997 EVA Soyuz TM-26-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Vinogradov.

Connected Spektr power cables. Surveyed interior of depressurised Spektr module. Retrieved equipment and belongings from module.


06 September 1997 EVA Soyuz TM-26-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Foale.

Inspected exterior of Spektr. Moved solar arrays.


01 October 1997 EVA STS-86-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Parazynski, Titov Vladimir.

Retrieved MEEP materials exposure experiment from outside of Mir.


20 October 1997 EVA Soyuz TM-26-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Vinogradov.

Installed new hatch to reconnect Spektr solar array cable with Mir power bus.


03 November 1997 EVA Soyuz TM-26-4 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Vinogradov.

Removed solar array from Kvant module.


06 November 1997 EVA Soyuz TM-26-5 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Vinogradov.

Installed solar array.


09 January 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-26-6 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Vinogradov.

Recovered equipment; began repairs on leaky Kvant-2 airlock. Examination of airlock indicated cause was loose belt, resulting in 10 mm gap.


14 January 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-26-7 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Solovyov, Wolf.

Inspected station exterior.


03 March 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-27-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Musabayev, Budarin.

Inner and outer airlocks of Kvant-2 module were depressurised for EVA. However the crew could not open the outer hatch, repaired on 2 January 1998 by Solovyov and Vinogradov. The planned EVA was cancelled.


01 April 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-27-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Musabayev, Budarin.

The Kvant-2 hatch had been fixed from within and was used for the EVA. Objective was to repair the damaged Spektr solar panel. Handrails were installed near the panel but the crew could not complete the work before the scheduled time ran out.


06 April 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-27-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Musabayev, Budarin.

The crew succeeded in completing repair of the damaged Spektr solar panel. However the EVA was cut short when Mission Control in error commanded the Mir to drift. This was then misdiagnosed as a depletion of fuel of the VDU orientation engine, and the crew was ordered back into the station.


11 April 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-27-4 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Musabayev, Budarin.

The cosmonauts began a series of three EVA's to install the new VDU station orientation engine (delivered by Progress M-38) into the Sofora boom. On this first spacewalk they disconnected the old engine (in use for six years) and pushed it into space.


17 April 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-27-5 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Musabayev, Budarin.

Installation of the new VDU station orientation engine assembly was completed at the end of the Sofora boom.


22 April 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-27-6 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Musabayev, Budarin.

Two truss structures on the Kvant module and the new Sofora VDU station orientation engine assembly was unlatched from Progress M-38.


15 September 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-28-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Padalka, Avdeyev.

After donning spacesuits, the PKhO compartment of the Mir core module was depressurized and the crew entered the dead Spektr module at 20:00 GMT. They reconnected some cables for the solar panel steering mechanism and closed the hatch a half hour later. The PKhO was then repressurized.


17 November 1998 EVA Soyuz TM-28-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Padalka, Avdeyev.

Padalka and Avdeyev made the EVA from the Kvant-2 airlock on the Mir. The walk began at 19:24 GMT. The cosmonauts installed a meteoroid detector in for the upcoming Leonid shower, and hand-launched the Spoutnik-41 amateur-radio mini-satellite. The space walk concluded at 01:18 GMT on November 11.


16 April 1999 EVA Soyuz TM-29-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Afanasyev, Haignere.

Haignere launched by hand the Sputnik-99 amateur radio satellite, delivered to Mir by Progress M-41.


23 July 1999 EVA Soyuz TM-29-2 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Afanasyev, Avdeyev.

Mir spacewalk started at 11:06 GMT. Afanasyev and Avdeyev installed a new experimental 6-meter antenna but failed to deploy it.


28 July 1999 EVA Soyuz TM-29-3 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Afanasyev, Avdeyev.

The spacewalk started at 09:37 GMT. Afanasyev and Avdeyev erected an experimental 6-meter antenna. At the end of the experiment the antenna was jettisoned.


12 May 2000 EVA Soyuz TM-30-1 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Kaleri, Zalyotin.

The cosmonauts entered open space via the air-lock of Kvant-2 at 10:44 GMT. The Germatizator experiment, the use of a special glue to seal off cracks on the outside surface of the complex, was executed according to plan. An inspection of a malfunctioning solar panel on Kvant-1showed that the steering cable to the rotor was burnt through due to a short-circuit and was beyond repair. The cosmonauts dismantled an experimental lightweight solar battery from the outer surface of the SO docking compartment. The last activity was the panorama-inspection, making images of the outside of the complex to enable specialist to analyse the effects of ageing of the material. The hatch was closed on what might have been the last spacewalk on Mir at 15:36 GMT.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .