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astronautix.com MAKS

MAKS mockup - side
MAKS mockup - side - MAKS mockup - side view

Credit: Dr.Vadim P.Lukashevich. 17,290 bytes. 339 x 195 pixels.



Class: Manned. Type: Spaceplane. Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: NPO Molniya.

The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the OK-M studies NPO Molniya conducted with NPO Energia. The draft project for MAKS was completed in 1988 and consisted of 220 volumes, generated by NPO Molniya and 70 sub-contractors and government institutes. Development of MAKS was authorised but cancelled after Perestroika. At the time of the cancellation, mock-ups of both the MAKS orbiter and the external tank had been finished. A 9,000 kgf experimental engine with 19 injectors was tested. There were 50 test burns proving the separate modes and a smooth switch between them. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990’s that development funding could be found. However this has not happened to date. MAKS was to have flown by 1998.

The MAKS air-launched manned space system weighed 620 tonnes on takeoff and consisted of three elements:


MAKS propellant tankMAKS propellant tank - MAKS propellant tank mockup

Credit: Dr.Vadim P.Lukashevich. 19,027 bytes. 310 x 200 pixels.



Specification

Craft.Crew Size: 2. Design Life: 100 flights. Total Length: 19.3 m. Total Mass: 27,000 kg. Total Payload: 8,300 kg.


MAKS Chronology


01 January 1988 MAKS draft project completed


MAKS side viewMAKS side view - MAKS side view drawing

Credit: Dr.Vadim P.Lukashevich. 42,391 bytes. 721 x 371 pixels.


The MAKS spaceplane draft project consisted of 220 volumes, generated by NPO Molniya and 70 sub-contractors and government institutes. Development of MAKS was authorised but cancelled after Perestroika. At the time of the cancellation, mock-ups of both the MAKS orbiter and the external tank had been finished. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990’s that development funding could be found. However this has not happened to date.

MAKS top viewMAKS top view - MAKS top view drawing

Credit: Dr.Vadim P.Lukashevich. 49,732 bytes. 724 x 393 pixels.


01 May 1989 MAKS draft project. Launch Vehicle: MAKS.

MAKS draft project is completed.



Bibliography:



MAKS launchMAKS launch - MAKS launches from back of An-225

Credit: Dr.Vadim P.Lukashevich. 9,910 bytes. 220 x 234 pixels.



MAKS mission profileMAKS mission profile

Credit: Dr.Vadim P.Lukashevich. 17,033 bytes. 302 x 264 pixels.



MAKS cutaway drawingMAKS cutaway drawing

Credit: Dr.Vadim P.Lukashevich. 18,056 bytes. 361 x 301 pixels.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .