|Soviet Lunar Landers|
Comparison of Soviet lunar lander designs. Only the LK reached the hardware stage.
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In July 1970 Kuznetsov was given authorisation to design substantially improved versions of the N1 rocket engines. The N1 that would utilise these engines was designated the N1F and would have a payload to a 225 km orbit of 105,000 kg.
Full go-ahead to develop a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen high energy upper stage for the N1F finally came in June 1970. The decision was made to develop a multi-engine Block Sr with a propellant mass of 66.4 tonnes. This single stage would be used in place of the previously-planned Blocks S and R to insert spacecraft of what was now termed the Lunar Expeditionary Complex (LEK) into low lunar orbit. It was also to be used to insert heavy spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit and on interplanetary trajectories.
|L3M - External views of early and later L3M manned lunar lander designs.|
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|L3M - Cutaway View - Cutaway views of early and later L3M manned lunar lander designs.|
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Craft.Crew Size: 2. Design Life: 90 days. Total Length: 9.3 m. Maximum Diameter: 4.4 m. Total Mass: 25,000 kg.
Military-Industrial Commission (VPK) Decree 'On approval of work on the draft project for the N1-L3M two-launch lunar landing proposal' was issued.
Council of Chief Designers Decree 'On approval of the N1-L3M proposal' was issued.
Ministry of Defence Decree 'On suspension of further launches of the N1' was issued.
Energia Decree 'On suspension of work on the N1 -L3' was issued.