Cutaway view of 1963 L1 circumlunar spacecraft.

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Manufacturer's Designation: L1; 7K-9K-11K. Class: Manned. Type: Lunar orbiter. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: OKB-1.

The second L1 project had the objective of sending two men on a circumlunar flyby trajectory. This L1 was first described in a 23 September 1963 letter setting out the space exploration plan for 1965 to 1975. At this time the Soyuz had a reverse configuration of that used later. From fore to aft, the modules were: the Descent Capsule (SA), Living Module (BO); Equipment Module (AO); Propulsion Module (AO); Rendezvous electronics module (NO) and Docking Unit (SU). As was later the case, the system consisted of the 7K manned spacecraft, the 9K rocket spacecraft, and the 11K tanker. A total of six launches of the 11A511 Soyuz booster would be required. The 9K rocket stage would be put in orbit first. It would be followed by four 11K tankers which would top off the tanks of the rocket block. Then, when all was ready, the 7K manned craft would be put into orbit and dock with the 9K stage. The stage would fire and put the manned spacecraft on a translunar trajectory.

The 7K would be equipped with cinema cameras and scientific sensors to record the lunar surface during the flyby, which would be at from 1,000 to 20,000 km from the lunar surface. Total flight time was 7 to 8 days. The SA would separate from the 7K at 120 to 150 km altitude and re-enter the earth’s atmosphere at 11 km/sec. After decelerating to subsonic speed, the SA’s parachute would open at 10-18 km altitude. Total mass of the L1 in low earth orbit was 23,000 kg and the flyby mass of the Soyuz alone was 5,100 kg. Craft.Crew Size: 2. Total Mass: 23,000 kg.


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Last update 22 December 2000.
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