|Kvant 2 Cutaway|
Kvant 2 was the second addition to the Mir core module. The module has is divided into three pressurised compartments: instrumentation/cargo, science instruments and an airlock.
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Originally the modules attached to the Mir base block were to be of the NPO Energia 37KS design. Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 tonnes). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 tonnes and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurised volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled in 1983. Competitive designs for integrated space station modules were submitted by KB Salyut and NPO Energia. The KB Salyut 77K modules were derived from the cancelled TKS manned ferry. The competing proposal from NPO Energia combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir. In June 1984 the KB Salyut design was selected. The revised Mir program plan was to assemble the station over a three year period, and operate it for ten years (versus the original one year/five years).
Credit: Mark Wade. 16,710 bytes. 542 x 210 pixels.
|Kvant 2 Large|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 2,260 bytes. 148 x 386 pixels.
Kvant 2 was designed to host life science, materials science, and Earth observation experiments. It also carried a substantial amount of equipment to improve living conditions and operations of the Mir complex, including the Elektron electrolysis system to provide oxygen from recycled water, a water supply system, two water regeneration systems, sanitation facilities, a shower, and an airlock compartment
The module was divided into three pressurised compartments: instrumentation/cargo, science instrument, and airlock. The total pressurised volume was 61 cubic meters. The airlock provided EVA capability and also contained a cosmonaut manoeuvring unit that increased the range and complexity of tasks that could be accomplished during EVA. The large EVA hatch was 1 metre in diameter.
Propulsion consisted of two 3.9 kN main engines and several 400N attitude control thruster clusters used for initial docking manoeuvres (N2O4/UDMH propellants). The Kurs guidance system allowed the module to automatically rendezvous and dock with the forward port of the Mir base block. Two 26 sq. m solar arrays provided 6.9 kW. 360 A-hr of energy storage was provided by a NiCd battery system. Star sensors and six Gyrodyne momentum wheels were used to reduce propellant required for station pointing.
Credit: © Mark Wade. 2,160 bytes. 190 x 294 pixels.
Total Length: 13.7 m. Maximum Diameter: 4.3 m. Total Habitable Volume: 59.00 m3. Total Mass: 19,565 kg. Total Payload: 5,000 kg. Total Propellants: 1,100 kg. Electric system: 6.90 total average kW. Electrical System: Solar cells 27.35 m span, 53.2 sq m.
Credit: Mark Wade. 22,590 bytes. 264 x 480 pixels.
Design and fabrication reached an advanced phase when it was decided that the separate tug concept resulted in too low a net scientific payload (3 tonnes). Integrating the tug with the module was expected to increase this to 5 tonnes and provide some reserve engine capability at Mir and additional pressurised volume. Accordingly the 37KS modules for Mir were cancelled. Work on the 37KE experimental module (Kvant) and the 37KB Buran modules continued. The function of the 37KS modules was taken up by modules by KB Salyut derived from the FGB. A competing proposal from NPO Energia for a unified spacecraft that combined the 37KS module with the engine unit of Mir was rejected.
Mir expansion module. Scheduled docking 2 December delayed due to failure of solar panel to extend and failure of automatic rendezvous system. Faults corrected by ground control and docked with Mir December 6, 1989 at 12:21 GMT. Transferred to lateral port December 8.
Officially: Delivery to the Mir orbital station of additional equipment and apparatus for the purpose of expanding the research and experiments conducted in the interests of science and the national economy.