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Istrebitel Sputnik
Istrebitel Sputnik - I2P ASAT. As far as is known follow-on models (IS-P, IS-MU) and the R-36-launched targets had a similar appearance.

Credit: © Mark Wade. 10,593 bytes. 251 x 213 pixels.



Manufacturer's Designation: I2P. Class: Military. Type: ASAT. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: KBYu.

First operational ASAT. Tested in 1967-1971 and deployed through the late 1970's. Design as revised by Yangel and Korolev from Chelomei's original. Launch vehicle R-36.


Specification

Total Mass: 1,400 kg.


I2P Chronology


23 June 1960 Chelomei Raketoplan, UR-200 ICBM, and IS antisatellite system authorised. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.

Decree 715-295 'On approval of preliminary work on the Raketoplan, UR-200 ICBM, and IS anti-satellite system' was issued.


13 October 1964 Khrushchev ousted from power. Launch Vehicle: UR-200, Proton 8K82K.

Brezhnev faction assumes control of Politubro. Brezhnev was adverse to all projects Khrushchev had supported. These included those of Chelomei and his OKB-52.


24 August 1965 Development of R-36-O and Tsyklon launch vehicles authorised Launch Vehicle: R-36-O, Tsyklon, Tsyklon 2, UR-200.

Decree 'On Creation of an R-36 Based Carrier Rocket for Launching the IS and US KA--start of work on an R-36-based launch vehicle for the IS and US programs' was issued. After Khrushchev was ousted from power, Chelomei's projects were examined by an expert commission under M V Keldysh. It was found that Yangelís R-36 rocket was superior to Chelomeiís UR-200. The UR-200 was cancelled; the IS and US satellites would be launched by the R-36 11K67. The Tsyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969.


30 March 1967 PKO Anti-satellite Force created.

Ministry of Defence Decree 'On formation of Anti-Space and Anti-Missile Forces of the Air Defence Forces (PKO) to operate General Soviet ASAT systems' was issued.


01 July 1967 Tsiklon-2 launch vehicle authorised. Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon 2.

Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On use of the R-36-based launcher for the Kosmos and Meteor satellites' was issued.


20 October 1968 Cosmos 249 Program: ASAT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 492 km. Apogee: 2,094 km. Inclination: 62.3 deg.


ASAT I2PASAT I2P

Credit: Videokosmos. 15,467 bytes. 352 x 267 pixels.


ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 248 target on second orbit. Repeatedly approached Cosmos 248, verifying primary and reserve homing and guidance systems. Destroyed itself in test of on-board destruct system. Counted as a failure by Western observers because that target was not destroyed; but this was not an objective of the test. Left 109 fragments in orbit, of which 54 were still in orbit in 1996.
01 November 1968 Cosmos 252 Program: ASAT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 535 km. Apogee: 2,104 km. Inclination: 62.3 deg.

ASAT interceptor. Intercepted and destroyed Cosmos 248 target satellite within one day of launch. Left 139 fragments in orbit, the largest of any ASAT test.


06 August 1969 Cosmos 291 Program: ASAT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon 2. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 144 km. Apogee: 548 km. Inclination: 62.2 deg.

ASAT target. Did not enter intended target orbit due to failure of on-board engine. Launch of ASAT interceptor planned for the next day was cancelled.



Asat hitAsat hit - First operational ASAT, shown in a Soviet film attacking a US KH-4 Corona reconnaisance satellite. Tested in 1967-1971 and deployed through the late 1970's. Design as revised by Yangel and Korolev from Chelomei's original. Launch vehicle R-36.

Credit: Videokosmos. 5,370 bytes. 225 x 141 pixels.


20 October 1970 Cosmos 373 Program: ASAT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon 2. Mass: 650 kg. Perigee: 510 km. Apogee: 1,103 km. Inclination: 62.9 deg.

ASAT target. Maneuvered twice to provide target for Cosmos 374 and 375 interceptors.


22 October 1970 Cosmos 374 Program: ASAT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon 2. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 496 km. Apogee: 1,648 km. Inclination: 63.0 deg.

ASAT interceptor. Intercepted Cosmos 374 on second orbit. Blown up on instructions from ground.


30 October 1970 Cosmos 375 Program: ASAT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon 2. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 577 km. Apogee: 1,995 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg.

ASAT interceptor. Intercept on second orbit. Blown up on instructions from ground. Dual launch of interceptors was intended to help ground staff perfect computational methods for quick-response launches when orbital methods of target were not precisely known.



ASAT I2PASAT I2P

Credit: Videokosmos. 19,325 bytes. 314 x 238 pixels.


25 February 1971 Cosmos 397 Program: ASAT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon 2. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 563 km. Apogee: 2,179 km. Inclination: 65.7 deg.

ASAT interceptor. Intercept and destruction of target successful on second orbit.


04 April 1971 Cosmos 404 Program: ASAT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon 2. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 802 km. Apogee: 1,010 km. Inclination: 65.7 deg.

ASAT interceptor. Conducted an extended test flight to shake out homing system and engine function. Tested new redundant ranging systems. Tested effectiveness of new approach trajectory to target, whereby target was approached from above rather than below. Following completion of tests and verification of system functions via telemetry, spacecraft was commanded to a destructive reentry over the Pacific Ocean.


03 December 1971 Cosmos 462 Program: ASAT. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Tsyklon 2. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 229 km. Apogee: 1,800 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg.

ASAT interceptor. Successfully intercepted and destroyed Cosmos 459 target. This completed state trials test series and in 1972 the Istrebitel Sputnik was adopted as armament for the Soviet Army. Cosmos 462 produced the lowest number of fragments (27) of any of the ASAT's tested.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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