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astronautix.com HS 601


Class: Communications. Nation: USA. Agency: Hughes Communications Inc. Manufacturer: Hughes.

3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimballed momentum bias wheels. Typically 1658 kg nitrogen tetroxide & MMH in four spheres. Spin-stabilised in transfer orbit. Twin solar wings of three 2.16 x 2.54 m panels carrying large area silicon cells on Kevlar substrate to satisfy 3.3 kW requirement. Eclipse protection provided by Nickel hydrogen batteries. 18 eclipse protected transponders, plus six spares with 63W TWTA. 10.75-10.95 Ghz FSS (&12.5 Ghz BSS) down Ku-band beams, 26 Mhz bandwidth, eirp 50 dBW min, orthogonal polarisation, operating in the FSS range


Specification

Design Life: 15 years min. Total Length: 2.3 m. Maximum Diameter: 2.5 m. Total Mass: 4,135 kg.


HS 601 Chronology


09 January 1990 Leasat 5 Program: Leasat. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 3,400 kg. Perigee: 35,694 km. Apogee: 35,878 km. Inclination: 2.8 deg.

Deployed from STS 32 1/10/89; 177 deg W; leased to U.S. government. The Leasat series was developed as a commercial venture to provide dedicated communications services to the U. S. military. Additional Details: Leasat 5.


14 August 1992 Optus B1 Program: Aussat. Launch Site: Xichang . Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. Mass: 2,760 kg. Perigee: 35,774 km. Apogee: 35,800 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Stationed at 160 deg E. Commercial communications. Longitude 160 +/- 0.05 deg E. Launched fromn China.


28 October 1992 Galaxy 7 Program: Galaxy. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. Mass: 2,968 kg. Perigee: 35,779 km. Apogee: 35,796 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Geostationary at 91 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


21 December 1992 Aussat B2 / Optus B2 Program: Aussat. Launch Site: Xichang . Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. FAILURE: Shortcomings in the guidance system lead to the vehicle not anticipating the true effects of hoizontal wind-shear once the mountains surrounding the launch site were cleared. This caused the nose fairing to collapse 45 seconds after launch. Mass: 2,760 kg. Perigee: 206 km. Apogee: 816 km. Inclination: 28.1 deg.

Despite collapse of the nose fairing and near-desctruction of the payload, the launch vehicle continued on to place the wreckage of Optus-B2, and the Star-63F Kick-Motor into low earth orbit.


25 March 1993 UHF F1 Program: UHF. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas I. FAILURE: Atlas engine failure. Loss of booster engine thrust resulted in a lower-than planned 1560 km x 1900 km orbit. Mass: 2,866 kg. Perigee: 36,042 km. Apogee: 36,111 km. Inclination: 27.1 deg.

US Navy communications; Ultra High Frequency Follow On; unusable orbit. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle was to have put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option.


12 May 1993 Astra 1C Program: Astra. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. Mass: 2,790 kg. Perigee: 35,777 km. Apogee: 35,798 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Stationed at 1.2 deg E. TV distribution services to Western Europe and the Canary Islands under franchise from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Contracted and controlled by the private company formed in 1985 called Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES). This is the third in a series of 4 medium power satellites, and will act primarily as Astra 1A's backup. Spacecraft: HS-601 platform.3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimballed momentum bias wheels.1658 kg nitrogen tetroxide & MMH in four spheres. Spin-stabilised in transfer orbit. Twin solar wings of three 2.16 x 2.54 m panels carrying large area silicon cells on Kevlar substrate to satisfy 3.3 kW requirement. Eclipse protection provided by Nickel hydrogen batteries. Payload: 18 eclipse protected transponders, plus six spares with 63W TWTA 10.95-11.200 Ghz down Ku-band European beams in 250 Mhz band adjacent (below) to Astra 1A, 26 Mhz bandwidth, eirp 50 dBW min, orthogonal polarisation, operating in the FSS range


25 June 1993 Galaxy 4 Program: Galaxy. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. Mass: 2,988 kg. Perigee: 35,700 km. Apogee: 35,911 km. Inclination: 0.1 deg.

Geostationary at 99 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).


03 September 1993 USA 95 Program: UHF. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas I. Mass: 2,844 kg. Perigee: 35,767 km. Apogee: 35,805 km. Inclination: 5.0 deg.

US Navy communications. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option.


20 November 1993 Solidaridad 1 Program: Morelos. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. Mass: 2,776 kg. Perigee: 27,744 km. Apogee: 35,690 km. Inclination: 0.4 deg.

Stationed at 109.2 deg W.


18 December 1993 DBS 1 Program: DBS. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. Mass: 2,860 kg. Perigee: 215 km. Apogee: 36,146 km. Inclination: 4.0 deg.

Stationed at 101.2 deg W. DirecTV, Inc. is a subsidiary of Hughes Communications and offers commercial satellite television service to the US. The orbital part of the system consists of 3 Hughes-built geosynchronous satellites. Broadcast services began in mid-1994. Competitors include the similar Primestar and USSB services, as well as older C-band satellite services and cable TV companies. Spacecraft: DirecTV uses the Hughes HS-601 spacecraft design.3-Axis stabilised, zero momentum biased control system. Two solar arrays (4 panels each side) span 31 meters and generate 4.3 kW power. Payload: The 2.5 m diameter graphite transmit reflector performs beam shaping.16 x 120 watt Ka-Band (12.2 - 12.7 GHz) transponders with 48-53 dBw EIRP and 24 MHz bandwidth. Power is higher in areas with heavy rain. The high power combined with Reed Solomon error correction coding allow the use of small 18 inch antennas by customers.
Financial/Operational:
FCC approved Direct Broadcast Satellites in 1986. By 1997 DirecTV had 2.6 million of 5.0 million US direct broadcast television subscribers. Direct Broadcast Satellites cost $ 175 million each and have 150 video channels.


24 June 1994 UHF F3 Program: UHF. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas I. Mass: 2,847 kg. Perigee: 35,776 km. Apogee: 35,795 km. Inclination: 4.8 deg.

US Navy communications . Stationed at 14.38 deg W. Launch vehicle put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option.


08 July 1994 Panamsat 2 Program: Panamsat. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. Mass: 2,290 kg. Perigee: 35,772 km. Apogee: 35,799 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Stationed at 168.97 deg E.


03 August 1994 DBS 2 Program: DBS. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. Mass: 2,860 kg. Perigee: 35,776 km. Apogee: 35,797 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Commercial TV broadcast. Stationed at 100.79 deg W. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option.


27 August 1994 Optus B3 Program: Aussat. Launch Site: Xichang . Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. Mass: 2,760 kg. Perigee: 35,671 km. Apogee: 35,905 km. Inclination: 0.5 deg.

Telephone; TV; mobile communications; air traffic control. Stationed at 156 deg deg E.


08 October 1994 Solidaridad 2 Program: Morelos. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. Mass: 2,776 kg. Perigee: 35,775 km. Apogee: 35,797 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

18 C-Band transponders. Stationed at 113.06 deg W.


01 November 1994 Astra 1D Program: Astra. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. Mass: 2,924 kg. Perigee: 35,773 km. Apogee: 35,796 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

European DBS and radio. Stationed at 19.29 deg E. TV distribution services to Western Europe and the Canary Islands under franchise from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Contracted and controlled by the private company formed in 1985 called Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES). This is the last in a series of 4 medium power satellites, and will act primarily as Astra 1B and 1C's backup. It will also carry four 12.5 Ghz BSS transponders that can be combined for HDTV. Spacecraft: HS-601 platform.3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimballed momentum bias wheels.1658 kg nitrogen tetroxide & MMH in four spheres. Spin-stabilised in transfer orbit. Twin solar wings of three 2.16 x 2.54 m panels carrying large area silicon cells on Kevlar substrate to satisfy 3.3 kW requirement. Eclipse protection provided by Nickel hydrogen batteries. Payload: 18 eclipse protected transponders, plus six spares with 63W TWTA 10.75-10.95 Ghz FSS (&12.5 Ghz BSS) down Ku-band European beams in 250 Mhz band adjacent (below) to Astra 1C, 26 Mhz bandwidth, eirp 50 dBW min, orthogonal polarisation, operating in the FSS range


01 December 1994 Panamsat 3 Program: Panamsat. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. FAILURE: Destroyed on launch .
25 January 1995 Apstar 2 Program: Apstar. Launch Site: Xichang . Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. FAILURE: Shortcomings in the guidance system lead to the vehicle not anticipating the true effects of hoizontal wind-shear once the mountains surrounding the launch site were cleared. This caused the nose fairing to collapse and the spacecraft to be destroyed.

Because the Apstar failure happened a few seconds later than Optus, the consequences were catastrophic. The vehicle was destroyed, and the falling wreckage landed on a village down-range of the launch site, killing at least 20 and perhaps as many as 120 people.


29 January 1995 UHF F4 Program: UHF. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas II. Mass: 3,023 kg. Perigee: 35,773 km. Apogee: 35,804 km. Inclination: 4.8 deg.

UHF Follow-On #4; US Navy communications . Stationed at 177.0 deg W. Launch vehicle put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option.


07 April 1995 AMSC-1 Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. Mass: 2,700 kg. Perigee: 35,777 km. Apogee: 35,796 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Mobile communicaitons. Stationed at 101.1 deg W. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option.


31 May 1995 UHF F5 Program: UHF. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas II. Mass: 3,015 kg. Perigee: 35,774 km. Apogee: 35,796 km. Inclination: 4.8 deg.

UHF Follow-On #5; US Navy communications . Stationed at 72.3 deg E. Launch vehicle put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option.


10 June 1995 DBS 3 Program: DBS. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. Mass: 2,934 kg. Perigee: 35,784 km. Apogee: 35,789 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Commercial TV. Stationed at 101.0 deg W.


03 August 1995 Panamsat 4 Program: Panamsat. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. Mass: 3,043 kg. Perigee: 35,774 km. Apogee: 35,798 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

16 C-Band, 24 Ku-Band transponders; 320 radio + 120 DirecTV channels. Stationed at 68.5 deg E.


29 August 1995 JCSAT 3 Program: JCSAT. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. Mass: 1,841 kg. Perigee: 35,779 km. Apogee: 35,794 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

8 transponders for digital TV. Stationed at 128.1 deg E. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR/MRS trajectory option.


19 October 1995 Astra 1E Program: Astra. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. Mass: 2,700 kg. Perigee: 35,766 km. Apogee: 35,802 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Western Europe digital TV; 18 Ku-band transponders. Stationed at 19.2 deg E.


22 October 1995 UHF F6 Program: UHF. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas II. Mass: 3,015 kg. Perigee: 35,776 km. Apogee: 35,797 km. Inclination: 5.0 deg.

UHF Follow-On #6; US Navy communications. Stationed at 105.3 deg W. Launch vehicle put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option.


15 December 1995 Galaxy 3R Program: Galaxy. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. Mass: 2,980 kg. Perigee: 35,756 km. Apogee: 35,792 km. Inclination: 0.1 deg.

Stationed at 95 deg W; 24 C-band, 24 Ku-band transponders; TV for Caribbean and Central America. Launch vehicle put payload into subsynchronous earth orbit with MRS trajectory option.


12 January 1996 Panamsat 3R Program: Panamsat. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. Mass: 2,900 kg. Perigee: 35,779 km. Apogee: 35,796 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Geostationary at 43.0W.


01 February 1996 Palapa C-1 Program: Palapa. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. Perigee: 35,777 km. Apogee: 35,798 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

30 C-band, 6 Ku-band transponders. Geostationary at 150.4E. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR/MRS trajectory option.


08 April 1996 Astra 1F Program: Astra. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / DM3. Mass: 3,010 kg. Perigee: 35,778 km. Apogee: 35,793 km. Inclination: 0.1 deg.

Geostationary at 19.3E.


20 April 1996 M-SAT 1 Program: M-SAT. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. Perigee: 35,777 km. Apogee: 35,794 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Geostationary at 106.5W.


16 May 1996 Palapa C2 Program: Palapa. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. Perigee: 35,780 km. Apogee: 35,790 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

34 transponders; Geostationary at 113.0E.


24 May 1996 Galaxy 9 Program: Galaxy. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. Perigee: 35,783 km. Apogee: 35,789 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Geostationary at 123.0W.


25 July 1996 UHF F7 Program: UHF. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas II. Mass: 3,015 kg. Perigee: 35,784 km. Apogee: 35,791 km. Inclination: 4.9 deg.
17 February 1997 JCSAT 4 Program: JCSAT. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. Perigee: 35,780 km. Apogee: 35,793 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Geosynchronous. Stationed over 150.0E Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR/MRS trajectory option.


28 July 1997 Superbird C Program: Superbird. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. Perigee: 35,780 km. Apogee: 35,793 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Geosynchronous. Stationed over 144.0E Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR/MRS trajectory option.


28 August 1997 Panamsat 5 Program: Panamsat. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / DM3. Perigee: 35,769 km. Apogee: 35,803 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Geosynchronous. Stationed over 58.0W. Used HS-601 XIPS ion engine for station keeping.


02 December 1997 JCSAT 5 Program: JCSAT. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P. Perigee: 35,784 km. Apogee: 35,790 km. Inclination: 0.1 deg.

Geosynchronous. Stationed over 139.4E


08 December 1997 Galaxy 8i Program: Galaxy. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. Perigee: 35,781 km. Apogee: 35,799 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Geosynchronous. Stationed over 79.2W Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with MRS trajectory option. Used HS-601 XIPS ion engine for station keeping.


24 December 1997 Asiasat 3 Program: Asiasat. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / DM3. FAILURE: DM-3 Stage failed, leaving spacecraft in geosynchronous transfer orbit. Perigee: 370 km. Apogee: 35,987 km. Inclination: 51.1 deg.

The spacecraft was left in a high inclination useless orbit by a failure of the DM-3 stage and became an insurance writeoff. Two trips around the Moon to remove the inclination under its new owner (Hughes) saw it back into very limited service (as HGS-1) by August 1998 over the Indian Ocean and available for sale at bargain rates.


16 March 1998 UHF F/O F8 Program: UHF. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas II. Perigee: 35,768 km. Apogee: 35,800 km. Inclination: 5.8 deg.

UHF Follow-On F8 was the first Block III UHF Follow-On satellite, replacing the old FLTSATCOM satellites. It carried UHF, EHF and Ka-band transponders, including a video broadcast payload. This was the last Atlas II launch; future Atlas launches would use the Atlas IIA, IIAS and III models. Geostationary at 171.8 degrees E.


27 August 1998 Galaxy 10 Program: Galaxy. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Delta 3. FAILURE: Due to guidance system induced oscillation all solid motor gimbal hydraulic fluid exhausted after only 71 seconds of flight. Range safety detroyed booster 75 seconds into flight at 16 km altitude. Mass: 3,876 kg.

Built by Hughes/El Segundo for Panamsat. The satellite carried 24 C-band and 24 Ku-band transponders to provide US/Caribbean coverage, and was to have replaced the ageing SBS-5 satellite at 123 deg West. Replenishing the Galaxy/PAS constellation was a high priority for Panamsat following the loss of Galaxy 4 and problems with Galaxy 7. Galaxy 11 was not scheduled to go up until the first launch of the Sea Launch Zenit-3SL in early 1999, and this booster was in limbo due to legal problems with unauthorised transfer of technical data from Boeing to Russia. In addition there were several PAS satellites awaiting launch over the next year on Proton and Ariane vehicles.


30 August 1998 Astra 2A Program: Astra. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / DM3. Perigee: 35,739 km. Apogee: 35,833 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

The first burn of the Proton's Block DM3 put the spacecraft into a 220 x 36,007 km x 51.6 deg transfer orbit. Astra 2A satellite was a Hughes HS-601, owned by Societe Europeene de Satellites, based in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has not registered any of the Astra satellites with the United Nations, in violation of treaty requirements. Geostationary at 28.3 degrees E. Used HS-601 XIPS ion engine for station keeping.


20 October 1998 UHF F/O F9 Program: UHF. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. Mass: 3,200 kg. Perigee: 34,816 km. Apogee: 36,750 km. Inclination: 6.0 deg.

The orbit at burnout of the Centaur was 286 km x 25866 km x 27.0 degree. Modification of the orbit to a geostationary 38,300 km circular x 0.0 degree inclination was accomplished by the Marquardt R-4D liquid propellant motor on the HS-601 spacecraft. The satellite carried UHF and EHF transponders for naval communications, and a Ka-band Global Broadcast Service video relay package. Launch mass of 3200 kg dropped to 1550 kg once geostationary orbit is reached. UHF F/O F9 was placed over the Atlantic Ocean. Geostationary at 173.9 degrees W. Additional Details: UHF F/O F9.


06 December 1998 Satmex 5 Program: Morelos. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. Mass: 4,135 kg. Perigee: 27,669 km. Apogee: 35,795 km. Inclination: 0.5 deg.

The Ariane placed the Satmex 5 satellite into a 211km x 21516 km x 7.0 degree orbit from which the satellite was to use its on-board engine to reach geostationary orbit. Satmex 5 was operated by Satellites Mexicanos S.A. de C.V, which took over the Morelos constellation from Mexican Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes. Satmex 5 replaced Morelos 2 and carried the XIPS ion engine station-keeping system.


22 December 1998 PAS 6B Program: Panamsat. Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. Mass: 3,475 kg. Perigee: 445 km. Apogee: 35,785 km. Inclination: 7.0 deg.

The Ariane third stage placed the PAS 6B into a 228 km x 35717 km x 7.0 degree orbit. The satellite’s on board rocket system will move it into its final geostationary position over South America. PAS 6B will provide direct TV broadcasting service in replacement of PAS 6, a Loral satellite which had problems with its solar arrays. The new satellite had 32 Ku-band transponders.


16 February 1999 JCSAT-6 Program: JCSAT. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. Mass: 2,900 kg. Perigee: 35,777 km. Apogee: 35,798 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

JCSAT-6 carried a Ku-band relay system. It was operated by Japan Satellite Systems, Inc., Tokyo, provided communications and data relay for Japan and the Pacific Rim. Two burns of the Centaur upper stage placed it into a supersynchronous transfer orbit of 258 km x 96736 km x 24.1 degrees. JCSAT-6's on-board R-4D engine would maneuver it into its final geostationary location. Dry mass of the spacecraft was 1230 kg. Stationed at 124 deg E


21 March 1999 Asiasat 3S Program: Asiasat. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / DM3. Mass: 3,463 kg. Perigee: 35,780 km. Apogee: 35,795 km. Inclination: 0.1 deg.

A replacement for Asiasat 3, placed in the wrong orbit by a Proton launch in 1997, Asiasat 3S carried C and Ku band transponders. The Blok DM3 upper stage placed it a 9,677 km x 35,967 km x 13.1 deg geosynchronous transfer orbit. Asiasat's on-board R4D apogee engine was to be used to raise perigee to geostationary altitude. Mass in transfer orbit was 3,463 kg, down to 2,500 kg after insertion in geostationary orbit. Stationed at 105 deg E.


05 May 1999 Orion 3 Program: Orion. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Delta 3. FAILURE: Engine failure at ignition for second burn of Centaur stage. Perigee: 421 km. Apogee: 1,310 km. Inclination: 29.1 deg.

The Centaur RL-10B-2 second stage engine's combustion chamber ruptured at the beginning of the second burn. The hot gases already in the chamber vented, putting the stage/spacecraft assembly into an uncontrollable tumble. The Orion 3 communications satellite ended up in a useless parking orbit of 162 km x 1378 km x 29.5 deg. It was to have served the Asia-Pacific region for Loral Orion with 33 Ku-band and 10 C-band transponders.


18 June 1999 Astra 1H Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / DM3. Perigee: 35,744 km. Apogee: 35,825 km. Inclination: 0.2 deg.

Geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 19 deg E.


10 October 1999 DirecTV 1R Launch Site: Sea Launch . Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SL. Perigee: 35,785 km. Apogee: 35,787 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Second successful Zenit-3SL flight from the Odyssey launch platform in the Pacific Ocean at 154 deg W, 0 deg N. First flight to carry a commercial payload. The satellite used its R-4D apogee engine to enter geostationary orbit at 81.6 deg W. Finally stationed at 101 deg W.


23 November 1999 UHF F/O F10 Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. Perigee: 35,945 km. Apogee: 36,626 km. Inclination: 6.0 deg.

UHF Follow-on satellite providing UHF and EHF communications, and Global Broadcast Service television for the US Navy. Stationed at 170 deg W.


25 January 2000 Galaxy 10R Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. Mass: 1,987 kg. Perigee: 35,785 km. Apogee: 35,787 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Geosynchronous satellite launched to supplement Panamsat's Galaxy cable TV distribution constellation. It carried Ku and C band transponders and was to be stationed at 127 deg W. A replacement for Galaxy 10, lost on the first Delta 3 launch failure. Stationed at 123 deg W.


18 February 2000 Superbird 4 Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. Perigee: 35,779 km. Apogee: 35,793 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Provided geosynchronous communications services for the Space Communications Corporation of Japan. Carried 23 Ku-band and 6 Ka-band transponders, and was equipped with a Marquardt R4D apogee engine and XIPS ion propulsion stationkeeping system. Stationed at 162 deg E.


12 March 2000 ICO F-1 Launch Site: Sea Launch . Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SL. FAILURE: Second stage shut down prematurely due to a valve software command mistake. The satellite fell in the South Pacific, south of Pitcairn Island. Mass: 2,750 kg.

First ICO Global Communications satellite. Lost due to launch vehicle failure; was to have entered a 10,300 km x 45 deg circular orbit. ICO's satellites would carry multiple spot beams for mobile communications.


19 April 2000 Galaxy 4R Launch Site: Kourou . Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42L. Perigee: 35,779 km. Apogee: 35,793 km. Inclination: 0.0 deg.

Galaxy 4R carried 28 Ku-band and 28 C-band transponders. After insertion in a standard 219 x 32007 km x 7.0 deg geostationary transfer orbit, Galaxy 4R's R-4D apogee engine raised orbit to 35765 x 35792 km x 0.1 deg by April 27 and was over 67 deg W by late April. Final destination was 99 deg W. The Galaxy satellites provide US domestic telecommunications services. 4R replaces the original Galaxy 4H which failed in May 1998, putting pagers out of action across the USA. Stationed at 99 deg W.


30 June 2000 TDRS 8 Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. Perigee: 35,683 km. Apogee: 35,892 km. Inclination: 6.7 deg.

First Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, using a Hughes HS 601 satellite bus. It included an S-band phased array antenna and two Ku/Ka band reflectors 4.6 meters in diameter. The satellite was launched into a a 167 x 577 km x 28.3 deg parking orbit at 13:05 GMT. The Centaur upper stage made a second burn at 13:21 GMT, releasing the satellite into a subsynchronous transfer orbit of 237 x 27,666 km x 27.0 deg. The satellite's own Primex/Marquardt R4D liquid apogee engine would be used to maneuver the satellite into its final geosynchronous orbit. Stationed at 151 deg W.


28 July 2000 PAS 9 Launch Site: Sea Launch . Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SL. Perigee: 35,775 km. Apogee: 35,801 km. Inclination: 0.1 deg.

Panamsat geosynchronous communications satellite to replace PAS 5 at 58 deg W. Stationed at 58 deg W.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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