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Glonass
Glonass -

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Article Number: 11F654. Code Name: Uragan. Class: Navigation. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: NPO PM.

Glonass was a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system. At the end of the 1960's the military identified a need for a Satellite Radio Navigation System (SRNS) for use in precision guidance of the planned new generation of ballistic missiles. The existing Tsiklon satellite navigation system could not be used for this purpose; it required several minutes of observation by the receiving station to fix a position. What was needed were navigation satellites of a new generation with autonomous orbit correction. In 1968 to 1969 research institutes of the Ministry of Defence, Academy of Sciences, and Soviet Navy worked together to establish a single solution for air, land, sea, and space forces. This resulted in a 1970 TTT requirements document that established the requirements for such a system. After further basic research in 1976 a decree was issued by the Soviet state for establishment of the GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Flight trials of the satellite for GLONASS, code named Uragan, began in 1982. Two Etalon geodetic satellites were also flown in the 19,100 km GLONASS orbit to fully characterise the gravitational field at the planned altitude and inclination.

The GLONASS signals were also used by many Western GPS receiveers as a complement/backup to the GPS system itself. The operational system contained 21 satellites in 3 orbital planes, with 3 on-orbit spares. Glonass provides 100 meters accuracy with its C/A (deliberately degraded) signals and 10-20 meter accuracy with its P (military) signals. Spacecraft: 3-Axis stabilised, nadir pointing. Dual solar arrays. Payload: L-Band navigation signals in 25 channels separated by 0.5625 MHz intervals in 2 frequency bands: 1602.5625 - 1615.5 MHz and 1240 - 1260 MHz. EIRP 25 to 27 dBW. Right hand circular polarised. On-board caesium clocks provide time accuracy to 1000 nanoseconds.


Specification

Design Life: 1 to 2 years. Total Mass: 1,370 kg.


Glonass Chronology


01 December 1976 GLONASS system development authorised.

Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On Expansion of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) Single Space Navigation System--development of GLONASS' was issued.


12 October 1982 Cosmos 1413 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,250 kg. Perigee: 19,061 km. Apogee: 19,075 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Glonass test flight. Testing of the components and equipment of the space navigation system established in order to locate the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and its merchant and fishing vessels. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.


10 August 1983 Cosmos 1492 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,250 kg. Perigee: 19,093 km. Apogee: 19,221 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Glonass test flight. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.


29 December 1983 Cosmos 1521 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,250 kg. Perigee: 18,992 km. Apogee: 19,149 km. Inclination: 66.5 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.


19 May 1984 Cosmos 1554 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,250 kg. Perigee: 19,088 km. Apogee: 19,171 km. Inclination: 66.6 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


04 September 1984 Cosmos 1595 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,250 kg. Perigee: 19,079 km. Apogee: 19,178 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


18 May 1985 Cosmos 1650 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,081 km. Apogee: 19,177 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


25 December 1985 Cosmos 1711 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,108 km. Apogee: 19,150 km. Inclination: 66.3 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


16 September 1986 Cosmos 1780 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,107 km. Apogee: 19,151 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


24 April 1987 Cosmos 1838 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. FAILURE: Block DM-2 failure, remained in LEO. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 140 km. Apogee: 10,401 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Glonass; upper stage failure; unusable orbit. Fourth stage failure


16 September 1987 Cosmos 1884 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,101 km. Apogee: 19,157 km. Inclination: 66.0 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


17 February 1988 Cosmos 1919 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. FAILURE: Block DM-2 failure, remained in LEO. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 166 km. Apogee: 194 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.


21 May 1988 Cosmos 1947 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,117 km. Apogee: 19,141 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg.

Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels.


16 September 1988 Cosmos 1970 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,099 km. Apogee: 19,159 km. Inclination: 65.7 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


10 January 1989 Cosmos 1988 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,111 km. Apogee: 19,147 km. Inclination: 65.0 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


31 May 1989 Cosmos 2023 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,087 km. Apogee: 19,170 km. Inclination: 65.5 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


19 May 1990 Cosmos 2080 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,113 km. Apogee: 19,145 km. Inclination: 65.3 deg.

Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet.


08 December 1990 Cosmos 2111 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,110 km. Apogee: 19,148 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg.

Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket.


04 April 1991 Cosmos 2139 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,098 km. Apogee: 19,160 km. Inclination: 65.1 deg.

Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet.


30 January 1992 Cosmos 2179 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,111 km. Apogee: 19,148 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg.

Glonass navigational satellite. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet.


30 July 1992 Cosmos 2206 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,101 km. Apogee: 19,157 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg.

Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet.


17 February 1993 Cosmos 2235 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,111 km. Apogee: 19,147 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg.

Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 1. Put into service on 25 August 1993 and taken out of service on 4 August 1997.


11 April 1994 Cosmos 2277 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,103 km. Apogee: 19,157 km. Inclination: 64.3 deg.

Glonass navigational satellite.


11 August 1994 Cosmos 2288 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,091 km. Apogee: 19,168 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Glonass navigation satellite.


20 November 1994 Cosmos 2294 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,052 km. Apogee: 19,207 km. Inclination: 64.9 deg.

Glonass navigation satellite.


07 March 1995 Cosmos 2308 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,108 km. Apogee: 19,151 km. Inclination: 64.7 deg.

Glonass navigation satellite.


24 July 1995 Cosmos 2316 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 19,083 km. Apogee: 19,176 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 26 August 1995.


14 December 1995 Cosmos 2323 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Mass: 1,400 kg. Perigee: 18,677 km. Apogee: 19,133 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

Glonass navigation satellite. Constellation 2. Put into service 18 January 1996.


30 December 1998 Cosmos 2363 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Perigee: 19,122 km. Apogee: 19,126 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.
13 October 2000 Cosmos 2375 Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Proton 8K82K / 11S861. Perigee: 19,126 km. Apogee: 19,133 km. Inclination: 64.8 deg.

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Last update 12 March 2001.
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