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astronautix.com Foton

Foton
Foton
Foton satellite in its assembly hall, with its booster and payload shroud. The cylindrical module at the top is a Nauka module.

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Class: Materials. Nation: USSR. Manufacturer: TsKB.

Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for zero-gravity materials processing tests. 400 W available to operate experiments.


Specification

Design Life: 16 days. Total Mass: 6,190 kg. Total Payload: 404 kg.


Foton Chronology


16 April 1985 Cosmos 1645 / Foton 1 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,200 kg. Perigee: 214 km. Apogee: 388 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 12.16 days.

Materials processing tests.


21 May 1986 Cosmos 1744 / Foton 2 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,200 kg. Perigee: 217 km. Apogee: 371 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 13.19 days.


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216 orbits. Materials processing experiments. Continuation of research on materials science in space.
24 April 1987 Cosmos 1841 / Foton 3 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,300 kg. Perigee: 217 km. Apogee: 380 km. Inclination: 62.9 deg. Duration: 13.17 days.

Materials processing tests. Conduct of experiments on the production of semi-conducting materials and super-pure biological preparations in micro-gravity.


14 April 1988 Foton 4 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,200 kg. Perigee: 215 km. Apogee: 372 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 13.62 days.

218 orbits. Materials processing experiments; extremely pure and semiconductor materials. Research in material science in space (production of semiconductor materials with improved properties and very pure biologically active substances)



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Credit: © Thomas Ludwig. 17,496 bytes. 338 x 219 pixels.


26 April 1989 Foton 5 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,200 kg. Perigee: 220 km. Apogee: 377 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 14.35 days.

234 orbits. Materials processing. Space materials research (production of enhanced performance semiconductors and especially pure biologically active substances in microgravity conditions). Jointly with France.


11 April 1990 Foton 6 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,200 kg. Perigee: 216 km. Apogee: 374 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 15.17 days.

250 orbits. Soviet and French microgravity experiments. Space materials research.


04 October 1991 Foton 7 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,200 kg. Perigee: 214 km. Apogee: 394 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 15.54 days.


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Credit: © Carsten Wiedemann. 22,344 bytes. 439 x 207 pixels.


Materials research; carried German, French experiments. Continuation of space materials research conducted jointly with Germany and France.
08 October 1992 Foton 8 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,200 kg. Perigee: 218 km. Apogee: 359 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 15.60 days.

250 orbits. Microgravity research. Space materials research (conducted jointly with Germany).


14 June 1994 Foton 9 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,200 kg. Duration: 17.56 days.

Microgravity experiments. Landed July 2.


16 February 1995 Foton 10 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,300 kg. Perigee: 218 km. Apogee: 355 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 14.62 days.

234 orbits. Carried Russian, French, German micro-gravity experiments. Landed in Russia Mar 3


09 October 1997 Foton 11 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Perigee: 218 km. Apogee: 363 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 13.63 days.

Microgravity experiments. Landed in Kazakhstan Oct 23.


09 September 1999 Foton 12 Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Perigee: 216 km. Apogee: 379 km. Inclination: 62.8 deg. Duration: 14.64 days.

Foton 12 carried European microgravity experiments. The spacecraft's descent module landed on Russian territory at 52.47 deg N 53.83 deg E on September 24, 1999.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .