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astronautix.com Endeavour

Shuttle Night Launch
Shuttle Night Launch
Shuttle Night Launch 2

Credit: © Mark Wade. 39,358 bytes. 477 x 154 pixels.


Manufacturer's Designation: OV-105. Class: Manned. Type: Spaceplane. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Rockwell.

Endeavour is named after the first ship commanded by James Cook. Empty Weight was 151,205 lbs at rollout and 172,000 lbs with main engines installed.


Specification

Craft.Crew Size: 8. Design Life: 28 days. Orbital Storage: 30.00 days. Total Length: 37.2 m. Maximum Diameter: 23.8 m. Total Habitable Volume: 71.50 m3. Total Mass: 104,328 kg. Total Payload: 24,990 kg. Total Propellants: 21,600 kg. Total RCS Impulse: 954,000.00 kgf-sec. Primary Engine Thrust: 24,213 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/MMH. Main Engine Isp: 316 sec. Total spacecraft delta v: 700 m/s. Electric system: 14.00 total average kW. Electric System: 12,000.00 total kWh. Electrical System: Fuel Cells.


Endeavour Chronology


07 May 1992 STS-49 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Akers, Brandenstein, Chilton, Hieb, Melnick, Thornton, Thuot. Manned flight: STS-49. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 14,786 kg. Perigee: 268 km. Apogee: 341 km. Inclination: 28.3 deg. Duration: 8.89 days.


Shuttle OrbiterShuttle Orbiter - Shuttle Orbiter side view

Credit: © Mark Wade. 1,859 bytes. 402 x 158 pixels.


Retrieved Intelsat 6 and attached new SRM. First active dual rendezvous of two orbiting spacecraft (Endeavour and Intelsat-Vl) First deployment of a drag chute on the orbiter fleet. Payloads: Intelsat-Vl reboost mission hardware, Assembly of Station by EVA Methods (ASEM), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl). Additional Details: STS-49.
10 May 1992 EVA STS-49-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Thuot, Hieb.

Attempted capture of Intelsat V1.


11 May 1992 EVA STS-49-2 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Thuot, Hieb.

Second attempted capture of Intelsat V1.


13 May 1992 EVA STS-49-3 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Thuot, Hieb, Akers.

Intelsat V1 finally captured in first three-person spacewalk.


14 May 1992 EVA STS-49-4 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Thornton, Akers.

Tested tools and techniques for assembly of the International Space Station.


12 September 1992 STS-47 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Apt, Brown, Davis, Gibson, Jemison, Lee, Mohri. Manned flight: STS-47. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 12,772 kg. Perigee: 297 km. Apogee: 310 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 7.94 days.

Manned seven crew. Carried Spacelab-J with microgravity and biology experiments. Payloads: Spacelab-J, nine getaway special canister experiments, Israel Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Solid Surface Combus-tion Experiment (SSCE). Additional Details: STS-47.


13 January 1993 STS-54 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Casper, Harbaugh, Helms, McMonagle, Runco. Manned flight: STS-54. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 21,156 kg. Perigee: 302 km. Apogee: 309 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 5.98 days.

Manned five crew. Deployed TDRSS 6. Payloads: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-F/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS); Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer (DXS); Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX); Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) A; Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE) 02; Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). Additional Details: STS-54.



Shuttle LandingShuttle Landing

Credit: NASA. 24,373 bytes. 474 x 298 pixels.


17 January 1993 EVA STS-54-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Harbaugh, Runco.

Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity.


21 June 1993 STS-57 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Currie, Duffy, Grabe, Low, Voss Janice, Wisoff. Manned flight: STS-57. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 8,931 kg. Perigee: 402 km. Apogee: 471 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 9.99 days.

Manned six crew. Carried Spacehab 1; retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft. Payloads: Spacehab 01, retrieval of European Retriev-able Carrier (EURECA) Satellite, Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT), Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP)-IV, Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), GAS bridge assembly with 12 getaway special payloads. Additional Details: STS-57.


25 June 1993 EVA STS-57-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Low, Wisoff.

Latched Eureca antenna. Conducted tests to refine procedures for servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope and construction of the International Space Station


02 December 1993 STS-61 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Akers, Bowersox, Covey, Hoffman, Musgrave, Nicollier, Thornton. Manned flight: STS-61. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 8,011 kg. Perigee: 291 km. Apogee: 576 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 10.83 days.

Manned seven crew. Hubble repair mission. Conducted the most EVAs (5) on a Space Shuttle Flight to that date. Payloads: Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission (SM) 1, IMAX Camera, IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS). Additional Details: STS-61.


04 December 1993 EVA STS-61-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Hoffman, Musgrave.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - gyroscope replacement.


05 December 1993 EVA STS-61-2 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Thornton, Akers.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - solar array replacement.



Shuttle OrbiterShuttle Orbiter - Shuttle Orbiter 2 view

Credit: © Mark Wade. 4,696 bytes. 402 x 425 pixels.


06 December 1993 EVA STS-61-3 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Hoffman, Musgrave.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - WFPC-P installation.


07 December 1993 EVA STS-61-4 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Thornton, Akers.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - COSTAR installation.


08 December 1993 EVA STS-61-5 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Hoffman, Musgrave.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1 - solar array drive replacement.


09 April 1994 STS-59 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Apt, Chilton, Clifford, Godwin, Gutierrez, Jones. Manned flight: STS-59. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 12,490 kg. Perigee: 194 km. Apogee: 204 km. Inclination: 56.9 deg. Duration: 11.24 days.

Carried SIR-C SAR radar. Payloads: Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) 1; Consortium for Materials Development in Space Com-plex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP) IV; three getaway special (GAS) payloads; Space Tissue Loss (STL) A, B; Visual Function Tester (VFT) 4; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II. Additional Details: STS-59.


30 September 1994 STS-68 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Baker Mike, Bursch, Jones, Smith Steven, Wilcutt, Wisoff. Manned flight: STS-68. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 12,510 kg. Perigee: 193 km. Apogee: 193 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 11.24 days.

Carried SIR-C SAR. Landed at Edwards Air Force Base on October 11. Payloads: Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) 2, five Getaway Special payloads, Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX) 5, Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) 01, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG). Additional Details: STS-68.


02 March 1995 STS-67 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Durrance, Gregory William, Grunsfeld, Jernigan, Lawrence, Oswald, Parise. Manned flight: STS-67. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 13,116 kg. Perigee: 305 km. Apogee: 305 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 16.63 days.


STSSTS

Credit: NASA. 19,745 bytes. 241 x 450 pixels.


Carried Astro 2 astronomy payload with 3 UV telescopes.(attached to Endeavour).Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy (ASTRO) 2; Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE); Protein Crystal Growth—Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) 03; Protein Crystal Growth—Single-Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) 02; Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Minilab/Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. Experiments (CMIX) 03; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; two getaway special experiments. Additional Details: STS-67.
07 September 1995 STS-69 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Cockrell, Gernhardt, Newman, Voss, Walker Dave. Manned flight: STS-69. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 11,499 kg. Perigee: 321 km. Apogee: 321 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 10.85 days.

Deployed and retrieved Spartan 201, WSF 2. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 2; Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for As-tronomy (SPARTAN) 201; International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH)1; Inter-Mars Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ITEPC); Extravehicular Activity Development Flight Test (EDFT) 2; Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL) 2/ getaway special (GAS) bridge assembly with five GAS payloads; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE) B; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC); Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Configuration A; Electrolysis Perfor-mance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS); Space Tissue Loss (STL)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Cells (C); Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX). Additional Details: STS-69.


16 September 1995 EVA STS-69-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Voss, Gernhardt.

Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity.


11 January 1996 STS-72 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Barry, Chiao, Duffy, Jett, Scott Winston, Wakata. Manned flight: STS-72. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 6,510 kg. Perigee: 302 km. Apogee: 310 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 8.92 days.

Deployed and retrieved OAST Flyer; retrieved SFU Space Flyer Unit. Beside the two satellite retrievals, the mission included two spacewalks. Additional Details: STS-72.


15 January 1996 EVA STS-72-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Chiao, Barry.

Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity.


17 January 1996 EVA STS-72-2 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Chiao, Scott Winston.

Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity.


19 May 1996 STS-77 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Brown, Bursch, Casper, Garneau, Runco, Thomas Andrew. Manned flight: STS-77. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 12,233 kg. Perigee: 274 km. Apogee: 285 km. Inclination: 39.0 deg. Duration: 10.03 days.

Deployed and retrieved Spartan 2; deployed PAMS-STU; carried Spacehab module. Payloads: Shuttle Pointed Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE); Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) 01 (includes Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE), Global Positioning System (GPS) Attitude and Navigation Experiment (GANE) (RME 1316), Liquid Metal Test Experiment (LMTE) and Passive Aerodynami-cally Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS) Satellite Test Unit (STU); SPACEHAB-4; Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE); 12 getaway specials attached to a GAS bridge assembly (GAS 056, 063, 142, 144, 163, 200, 490, 564, 565, 703, 741 and the Reduced-Fill Tank Pressure Control Experiment (RFTPCE); Aquatic Research Facility (ARF) 01; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) 07, Block III. Additional Details: STS-77.


23 January 1998 STS-89 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Wilcutt, Edwards, Reilly, Anderson, Thomas Andrew, Dunbar, Sharipov. Manned flight: STS-89. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle . Perigee: 359 km. Apogee: 382 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 8.82 days.

Penultimate Shuttle mission to Mir. Andy Thomas replaced David Wolf as the resident NASA astronaut. Endeavour docked with the SO module on Mir at 20:14 GMT on January 24, 1998.

Payloads included:

Despite fits problems with his Sokol emergency spacesuit, Andy Thomas replaced David Wolf as a Mir crew member on January 25. Endeavour undocked from Mir on January 29 at 16:57 GMT and made one flyaround of the station before departing and landing at Kennedy Space Center's runway 15 at 22:35 GMT on January 31.


29 October 1998 STS-88 Program: ISS. Flight Crew: Cabana, Sturckow, Ross, Currie, Newman, Krikalyov. Manned flight: STS-88. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 180 km. Apogee: 322 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 11.80 days.

First attempted launch of STS-88 was scrubbed at 09:03 GMT on December 3 due to a problem with a hydraulic system sensor. Launch came the next day, with Endeavour entering an initial 75 km x 313 km x 51.6 degree orbit. Half an orbit after launch, at 09:19 GMT, Endeavour fired its OMS engines to raise the orbit to 180 km x 322 km x 51.6 degree.

On December 5 at 22:25 GMT Nancy Currie unberthed the Unity space station node from the payload bay using the RMS arm. She then moved the Unity to a position docked to the Orbiter Docking System in the payload bay in readiness for assembly with the Russian-launched Zarya FGB ISS component. After rendezvous with the Zarya FGB module, on December 6 at 23:47 GMT Endeavour grappled Zarya with the robot arm, and at 02:07 GMT on December 7 it was soft docked to the PMA-1 port on Unity. After some problems hard dock was achieved at 02:48 GMT. Unity and Zarya then formed the core of the future International Space Station. Ross and Newman made three space walks to connect cables between Zarya and Unity, on December 7, 9 and 12. On the last EVA a canvas tool bag was attached to the exterior of Unity to provide tools for future station assembly workers. Docking cables were disconnected to prevent Unity and Zarya from inadvertently undocking. Following an internal examination of the embryonic space station, Endeavour undocked at 20:30 GMT on December 13. The SAC-A and Mightysat satellites were ejected from the payload bay on December 14 and 15. Deorbit burn was December 16 at 03:48 GMT, and Endeavour landed at 04:53:29 GMT, on Runway 15 at the Kennedy Space Center.

Payloads included:

Additional Details: STS-88.
11 February 2000 STS-99 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Kregel, Gorie, Kavandi, Voss Janice, Mohri, Thiele. Manned flight: STS-99. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 233 km. Apogee: 233 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 11.23 days.

On an extremely successful mission the space shuttle Endeavour deployed the 61 metre long STRM mast. This was a side-looking radar that digitally mapped with unprecedented accuracy the entire land surface of the Earth between latitudes 60 deg N and 54 deg S. Sponsors of the flight included the US National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), NASA, and the German and Italian space agencies. Some of the NIMA data would remain classified for exclusive use by the US Department of Defense. Additional Details: STS-99.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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