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astronautix.com Discovery

Shuttle Landing
Shuttle Landing

Credit: NASA. 24,373 bytes. 474 x 298 pixels.


Manufacturer's Designation: OV-103. Class: Manned. Type: Spaceplane. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA.

Discovery, the third orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, was named after one of two ships that were used by the British explorer James Cook in the 1770s during voyages in the South Pacific that led to the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. Empty Weight was 151,419 lbs at rollout and 171,000 lbs with main engines installed.


Specification

Craft.Crew Size: 8. Design Life: 9 days. Orbital Storage: 30.00 days. Total Length: 37.2 m. Maximum Diameter: 23.8 m. Total Habitable Volume: 71.50 m3. Total Mass: 104,328 kg. Total Payload: 24,990 kg. Total Propellants: 21,600 kg. Total RCS Impulse: 954,000.00 kgf-sec. Primary Engine Thrust: 24,213 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/MMH. Main Engine Isp: 316 sec. Total spacecraft delta v: 700 m/s. Electric system: 14.00 total average kW. Electric System: 3,100.00 total kWh. Electrical System: Fuel Cells.


Discovery Chronology


01 August 1979 Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Discovery Program: STS. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.
27 August 1979 Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Discovery Program: STS.
01 August 1984 STS-41-F Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bobko, Williams Donald, Seddon, Griggs, Hoffman.

Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled due to payload delays.


30 August 1984 STS-41-D Program: STS. Flight Crew: Coats, Hartsfield, Hawley, Mullane, Resnik, Walker. Manned flight: STS-41-D. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 21,552 kg. Perigee: 300 km. Apogee: 307 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 6.04 days.


STS-41-DSTS-41-D - View of launch of orbiter Discovery on 41-D mission

Credit: NASA. 39,390 bytes. 584 x 463 pixels.


Manned six crew. First flight of space shuttle Discovery; deployed SBS 4, Leasat 1, Telstar 3C. Payloads: Satellite Business System (SBS)-D commu-nications satellite with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deployment, Syncom IV-2 communica-tions satellite with its unique stage deployment, Telstar (American Telephone and Telegraph) 3-C with PAM-D deployment, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST)-1 experiments. Deployment and restowing of large solar array. Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES). IMAX camera. Additional Details: STS-41-D.
08 November 1984 STS-51-A Program: STS. Flight Crew: Allen, Fisher, Gardner, Hauck, Walker Dave. Manned flight: STS-51-A. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 20,550 kg. Perigee: 289 km. Apogee: 297 km. Inclination: 28.4 deg. Duration: 7.99 days.


STS-41-DSTS-41-D - View of foot restraint strayed from Discovery

Credit: NASA. 3,426 bytes. 285 x 358 pixels.


Manned five crew. First retrieval of two satellites (PALAPA B-2 and WESTAR Vl) for return to earth. Deployed Anik D2, Leasat 2; recovered Westar 6, Palapa B2. Payloads: Telesat (Canada communications satellite)-H with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deploy-ment, Syncom IV-1 communications satellite deployment with its unique stage, retrieval of PALAPA B-2 and WESTAR VI communications satellites with PAM-D which failed to ignite on the STS-41-B mission. Manned maneuvering unit (MMU) used for retrieval. Diffusive Mixing of Organic Solutions (DMOS) experiment. Additional Details: STS-51-A.
12 November 1984 EVA STS-14-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Allen, Gardner.

Retrieved Palapa satellite.


14 November 1984 EVA STS-14-2 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Allen, Gardner.

Retrieved Westar satellite.



STS-51-ASTS-51-A - Aerial view of the launch of STS 51-A shuttle Discovery

Credit: NASA. 29,278 bytes. 353 x 433 pixels.


24 January 1985 STS-51-C Program: STS. Flight Crew: Buchli, Mattingly, Onizuka, Payton, Shriver. Manned flight: STS-51-C. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 332 km. Apogee: 341 km. Inclination: 28.4 deg. Duration: 3.06 days.

Manned five crew. Deployed USA 8 (Aquacade ELINT spacecraft). Orbits of Earth: 48. Landed at: Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Landing Speed: 342 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 839.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,240.00 m. Payloads: Department of Defence classified payloads. Additional Details: STS-51-C.


01 April 1985 STS-51-AA Program: STS. Flight Crew: Creighton, Nagel, Fabian, Lucid, Jarvis, Walker.


STS-51-ASTS-51-A - View of the launch of STS 51-A shuttle Discovery

Credit: NASA. 12,111 bytes. 330 x 381 pixels.


Planned shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays.
12 April 1985 STS-51-D Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bobko, Garn, Griggs, Hoffman, Seddon, Walker, Williams Donald. Manned flight: STS-51-D. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 16,249 kg. Perigee: 445 km. Apogee: 535 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 7.00 days.

Manned seven crew. Payloads: Telesat (Canada communications satellite)-I with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D deployment, Syncom IV-3 communications satellite deploy-ment with its unique stage (unique stage failed to ignite), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis (CFES), Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), student experiments, two getaway specials (GAS) Informal science studies (Toys in Space). Additional Details: STS-51-D.



STS-51-ASTS-51-A - Astronaut Dale Gardner tethered to Discovery's starboard side.

Credit: NASA. 54,484 bytes. 625 x 444 pixels.


16 April 1985 EVA STS-16-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Hoffman, Griggs.

RMS 'Ryswatters' installed.


17 June 1985 STS-51-G Program: STS. Flight Crew: Al-Saud, Baudry, Brandenstein, Creighton, Fabian, Lucid, Nagel. Manned flight: STS-51-G. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 20,174 kg. Perigee: 358 km. Apogee: 369 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 7.07 days.

Deployed and retrieved Spartan 1; launched Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 3D.Payloads: Shuttle Pointed Autono-mous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN)-1; Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF); High Precision Tracking Experiment (HPTE); Orbiter Experiments (OEX); French Echocardiograph Experiment (FEE) and French Pocket Experiment (FPE). Additional Details: STS-51-G.



STS-51-ASTS-51-A - Syncom IV-1 satellite leaving Discovery's payload bay

Credit: NASA. 32,345 bytes. 518 x 469 pixels.


27 August 1985 STS-51-I Program: STS. Flight Crew: Covey, Engle, Fisher William, Lounge, van Hoften. Manned flight: STS-51-I. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 19,952 kg. Perigee: 351 km. Apogee: 364 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 7.10 days.

Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4; repaired Leasat 3. Payloads: Deploy ASC (American Satellite Company)-1 with Payload Assist Modue (PAM)-D. Deploy AUSSAT (Australian communications satellite)-1 with PAM-D. Deploy Syncom IV-4 communications satellite with its unique stage. Retrieve Leasat-3 communications satellite, repair and deploy by extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts. Physical Vapor Transport Organic Solids (PVTOS) experiment. Additional Details: STS-51-I.



STS-51-CSTS-51-C - Launch of Shuttle Discovery and the STS 51-C mission

Credit: NASA. 47,891 bytes. 608 x 460 pixels.


31 August 1985 EVA STS-20-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: van Hoften, Fisher William.

Captured Syncom F3 and began repairs.


01 September 1985 EVA STS-20-2 Program: STS. Flight Crew: van Hoften, Fisher William.

Completed Syncom F3 repairs and redeployed satellite.


01 July 1986 STS-62-A Program: STS. Flight Crew: Crippen, Gardner Guy, Mullane, Ross, Gardner, Aldridge, Watterson.

Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. Would have been first launch from the ill-fated SLC-6 launch site at Vandenberg, California.



STS-51-CSTS-51-C - Landing of the shuttle Discovery at end of STS 51-C mission

Credit: NASA. 16,557 bytes. 552 x 244 pixels.


04 September 1986 STS-61-N Program: STS. Flight Crew: Shaw, McCulley, Leestma, Adamson, Brown Mark, Casserino.

Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.


29 September 1986 STS-62-B Program: STS. Flight Crew: Roberts.

Planned Department of Defense shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.


29 September 1988 STS-26 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Covey, Hauck, Hilmers, Lounge, Nelson. Manned flight: STS-26. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 21,082 kg. Perigee: 301 km. Apogee: 306 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 4.04 days.


STS-51-DSTS-51-D - End effector of the Discovery's RMS with tools moves toward Syncom-IV

Credit: NASA. 30,269 bytes. 482 x 469 pixels.


Manned five crew. First shuttle reflight after Challenger disaster. Deployed TDRS 3. Payloads: Deploy IUS (lnertial Upper Stage) with Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-C. 3M's Physical Vapor Transport Organics Solids 2 experiment (PVTOS), Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (ADSF), Infrared Communi-cations Flight Experiment (lRCFE), Protein Crystal Growth Il (PCG), Isoelectric Focusing (ISF)-2, Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), Aggrega-tion of Red Blood Cells (ARC)-2, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE)-1, Earth Limb Radiance (ELRAD), Orbiter Experiments (OEX), Autonomous Supporting Instrumentation System (OASlS)-I, two Shuttle Student Involvement Project (SSIP) experiments. Additional Details: STS-26.
13 March 1989 STS-29 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bagian, Blaha, Buchli, Coats, Springer. Manned flight: STS-29. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 17,280 kg. Perigee: 297 km. Apogee: 308 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 4.99 days.


STS-51-DSTS-51-D - End effector of the Discovery's RMS with tools attached

Credit: NASA. 27,609 bytes. 486 x 471 pixels.


Manned five crew. Deployed TDRS 4. Payloads: Deploy IUS (Inertial Upper Stage) with Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS)-D. Protein Crystal Growth (PCG); Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space; IMAX 70mm camera; Shuttle Student Involvement Project (SSIP) experiments: SSIP 82-8, Effects of Weightlessness in Space Flight on the Healing of Bone Fractures, and SSIP 83-9, Chicken Embryo Development in Space; Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) experiment. Additional Details: STS-29.
23 November 1989 STS-33 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Blaha, Carter, Gregory, Musgrave, Thornton. Manned flight: STS-33. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 207 km. Apogee: 214 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 5.00 days.


STS-51-GSTS-51-G - Arabsat communications satellite deploying from Discovery's payload bay

Credit: NASA. 40,883 bytes. 481 x 472 pixels.


Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 78. Distance traveled: 3,218,687 km. Landed at: Concrete runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, Cali. Landing Speed: 368 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 570.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,366.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission - third space shuttle night launch. Additional Details: STS-33.
24 April 1990 STS-31 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bolden, Hawley, McCandless, Shriver, Sullivan. Manned flight: STS-31. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 13,005 kg. Perigee: 585 km. Apogee: 615 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 5.05 days.


STS-51-ISTS-51-I - Aerial view of the launch of Shuttle Discovery STS 51-I mission

Credit: NASA. 11,604 bytes. 408 x 388 pixels.


Deployed HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Payloads: Deployment of Hubble Space Telescope, IMAX camera in payload bay and in crew compartment, Protein Crystal Growth III-03, Investigation Into Polymer Membrane Process-ing- 01, Air Force Maui Optical Site-05, Radiation Monitoring Equipment III-01, Student Experiment 82-16, and Ascent Particle Monitor 01. Additional Details: STS-31.
06 October 1990 STS-41 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Akers, Cabana, Melnick, Richards, Shepherd. Manned flight: STS-41. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 22,140 kg. Perigee: 300 km. Apogee: 307 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 4.09 days.


STS-51-ISTS-51-I - Astronaut William Fisher anchored to foot restraint on Discovery

Credit: NASA. 27,045 bytes. 314 x 476 pixels.


Manned five crew. Deployed Ulysses spacecraft. Payloads: Deploy Ulysses, Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet, Intelsat Solar Array Coupon, Solid-Surface Combustion Experiment, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing, Chromo-some and Plant Cell Division in Space, Physiological Systems Experiment, Voice Command System, Radiation Monitoring Equipment III, Air Force Maui Optical Site. Additional Details: STS-41.
28 April 1991 STS-39 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bluford, Coats, Hammond, Harbaugh, Hieb, McMonagle, Veach. Manned flight: STS-39. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 9,712 kg. Perigee: 248 km. Apogee: 263 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 8.31 days.


STS-26STS-26 - STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, IUS / TDRS-C deployment

Credit: NASA. 52,498 bytes. 476 x 474 pixels.


Manned seven crew. Deployed USA 70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved IBSS. Payloads: Infrared Background Signature Survey (lBSS), Air Force Program (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-I, Multi-Purpose Experiment Canister (MPEC), Cloud Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll. Additional Details: STS-39.
12 September 1991 STS-48 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Brown Mark, Buchli, Creighton, Gemar, Reightler. Manned flight: STS-48. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 7,854 kg. Perigee: 575 km. Apogee: 580 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 5.35 days.


STS-26STS-26 - STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, IUS / TDRS-C deployment

Credit: NASA. 46,762 bytes. 472 x 470 pixels.


Manned five crew. Deployed UARS; conducted materials and biological research. Payloads: Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM)-03, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE)-01, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG)-ll-2, Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics, Experiment (MODE)-01, Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP)-04, Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM-02), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll-06, Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM)-03, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test. Additional Details: STS-48.
22 January 1992 STS-42 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bondar, Grabe, Hilmers, Merbold, Oswald, Readdy, Thagard. Manned flight: STS-42. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 13,001 kg. Perigee: 291 km. Apogee: 307 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 8.05 days.


STS-26STS-26 - STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, IUS / TDRS-C deployment

Credit: NASA. 52,238 bytes. 477 x 474 pixels.


Manned seven crew. Carried International Microgravity Laboratory-1. Payloads: International Microgravity Laboratory (lML)-1, getaway special (GAS) bridge with 10 getaway specials, IMAX camera, Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR)-1, Investigations Into Polymer Mem-brane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll, Student Experiment 81-09: Convection in Zero Gravity, Student Experiment 83-02: Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media. Additional Details: STS-42.
02 December 1992 STS-53 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bluford, Cabana, Clifford, Voss, Walker Dave. Manned flight: STS-53. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 11,868 kg. Perigee: 365 km. Apogee: 376 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 7.31 days.


STS-26STS-26 - STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, IUS / TDRS-C deployment

Credit: NASA. 35,352 bytes. 467 x 462 pixels.


Manned five crew. Deployed classified military satellite USA 89. The ODERACS payload was unable to be deployed because of payload equipment malfunction. Payloads: Department of Defense (DOD)1; Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); Orbital Debris Radar Calibration System (ODERACS); Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); Cloud Logic To Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS) 1A; Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Equipment (FARE); Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HER-CULES); Microencapsulation in Space (MIS)-1; Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME) III; Spare Tissue Loss (STL); Visual Function Tester (VFT)2. Additional Details: STS-53.
08 April 1993 STS-56 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Cameron, Cockrell, Foale, Ochoa, Oswald. Manned flight: STS-56. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 7,441 kg. Perigee: 291 km. Apogee: 299 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 9.26 days.


STS-26STS-26 - STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, IUS / TDRS-C deployment

Credit: NASA. 15,354 bytes. 473 x 373 pixels.


Manned five crew. Carried Atlas-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 2, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) A, Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201 (Solar Wind Generation Experi-ment), Solar Ultraviolet Experiment (SUVE), Commercial Material Dispersion Apparatus (CMIX), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting, and Environmental System (HER-CULES), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Space Tissue Loss (STL), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME) III. Additional Details: STS-56.
12 September 1993 STS-51 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bursch, Culbertson, Newman, Readdy, Walz. Manned flight: STS-51. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 19,360 kg. Perigee: 300 km. Apogee: 308 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 9.84 days.


STS-26STS-26 - STS-26 MS Nelson adjusts ADSF power cable on Discovery's middeck

Credit: NASA. 47,270 bytes. 606 x 425 pixels.


Deployed and retrieved Orfeus-SPAS. During the EVA conducted tests in support of the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission and future EVAs, including Space Station assembly and maintenance. First night landing at KSC. Payloads: Advanced Communication Technology Sat-ellite (ACTS)/Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer—Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) with Remote IMAX Camera System (RICS), Limited Duration Space Environ-ment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE) (Beam Configuration C), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG Block II), Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectroscopy-A (HRSGS-A), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), Investigation into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equip-ment (RME-III), Air Force Maui Optical Site Cal-ibration Test (AMOS), IMAX In-Cabin Camera. Additional Details: STS-51.
16 September 1993 EVA STS-51-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Walz, Newman.


STS-29STS-29 - STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, external tank (ET) separation

Credit: NASA. 40,560 bytes. 481 x 398 pixels.


Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity.
03 February 1994 STS-60 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bolden, Chang-Diaz, Davis, Krikalyov, Reightler, Sega. Manned flight: STS-60. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 13,006 kg. Perigee: 348 km. Apogee: 351 km. Inclination: 56.4 deg. Duration: 8.30 days.

Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 1 and SPACEHAB 02. Getaway special bridge assembly experiments: Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL), Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS), University of Bremen Satellite (BREMSAT), G-514, G-071, and G-536. Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B). Additional Details: STS-60.



STS-29STS-29 - STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, crew on flight deck prepares for reentry

Credit: NASA. 46,354 bytes. 516 x 430 pixels.


09 September 1994 STS-64 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Hammond, Helms, Lee, Linenger, Meade, Richards. Manned flight: STS-64. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 9,260 kg. Perigee: 225 km. Apogee: 225 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 10.95 days.

Payloads: Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201-II, Robot-Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), getaway special (GAS) bridge assembly with ten GAS experiments, Trajectory Control Sensor (TCS), Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) III, Radiation Monitoring Experiment (RME) III, Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test. Additional Details: STS-64.



STS-29STS-29 - STS-29 IUS with TDRS-D after deployment from Discovery, OV-103

Credit: NASA. 2,940 bytes. 187 x 160 pixels.


16 September 1994 EVA STS-64-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Lee, Meade.

Tested SAFER emergency manoeuvring backpack.


03 February 1995 STS-63 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Collins Eileen, Foale, Harris, Titov Vladimir, Voss Janice, Wetherbee. Manned flight: STS-63. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 8,641 kg. Perigee: 275 km. Apogee: 342 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 8.27 days.

Deployed ODERACS 2A-2E; deployed and retrieved Spartan 204. Discovery rendezvoused with Russia's space station, Mir, to a distance of 11 m and performed a fly-around, but did not dock with Mir. Payloads: SPACEHAB 03, Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 204, Cryo Systems Experiment (CSE)/GLO-2 Experi-ment Payload (CGP)/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS) 2, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) Additional Details: STS-63.



STS-31STS-31 - STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lifts off from KSC LC Pad 39B

Credit: NASA. 18,590 bytes. 390 x 445 pixels.


09 February 1995 EVA STS-63-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Foale, Harris.

Tested tools and techniques for extravehicular activity.


13 July 1995 STS-70 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Currie, Henricks, Kregel, Thomas, Weber. Manned flight: STS-70. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 20,159 kg. Perigee: 257 km. Apogee: 257 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 8.93 days.

Deployed TDRS 7. Payloads: Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) G/ Inertial Upper Stage (IUS); Bioreactor Demon-stration System (BDS) B; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC); Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG); Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HER-CULES); Microcapsules in Space (MIS) B; Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Rodents (R); Radiation Monitoring Experiment (RME) III; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; Space Tissue Loss (STL)/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Cells (C); Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST); Visual Function Tester (VFT) 4; Window Experiment (WINDEX). Additional Details: STS-70.



STS-33STS-33 - STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, early morning liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39B

Credit: NASA. 17,255 bytes. 416 x 472 pixels.


11 February 1997 STS-82 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bowersox, Horowitz, Lee, Tanner, Hawley, Harbaugh, Smith Steven. Manned flight: STS-82. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 584 km. Apogee: 618 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 9.98 days.

After a spectacular night launch, the Shuttle completed its rendezvous with Hubble Space Telescope on February 13. Over the next four days five spacewalks were undertaken to renovate Hubble.

The Hubble Space Telescope was released back into orbit at 06:41 GMT on February 19. Discovery landed on Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 08:32 GMT on February 21. Additional Details: STS-82.



STS-33STS-33 - Aerial view of STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, lifting off from KSC LC Pad 39B

Credit: NASA. 12,455 bytes. 342 x 289 pixels.


14 February 1997 EVA STS-82-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Lee, Smith Steven.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - NICMOS installation.


15 February 1997 EVA STS-82-2 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Harbaugh, Tanner.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - Guidance sensor replacement.


16 February 1997 EVA STS-82-3 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Lee, Smith Steven.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - Data interface unit replacement.


17 February 1997 EVA STS-82-4 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Harbaugh, Tanner.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - Solar array drive replacement.



STS-33STS-33 - STS-33 MS Musgrave, wearing headset, poses on Discovery's, OV-103's, middeck

Credit: NASA. 41,647 bytes. 539 x 425 pixels.


18 February 1997 EVA STS-82-5 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Lee, Smith Steven.

Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 2 - Insulation blanket repair.


07 August 1997 STS-85 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Brown, Rominger, Davis, Curbeam, Robinson, Tryggvason. Manned flight: STS-85. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 249 km. Apogee: 261 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 11.85 days.

Deployed and retrieved the CRISTA-SPAS-2 (the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2) designed to study Earth's middle atmosphere. The CRISTA-SPAS-2 was making its second flight on the Space Shuttle and represented the fourth mission in a cooperative venture between the German Space Agency (DARA) and NASA.


STS-33STS-33 - STS-33 MS Thornton on Discovery's, OV-103's, aft flight deck

Credit: NASA. 49,615 bytes. 626 x 445 pixels.


CRISTA-SPAS was deployed by the RMS arm at 22:27 GMT on August 7 and was recaptured by Discovery's RMS arm at 15:14 GMT on August 16. Because of unfavorable weather conditions at the primary shuttle landing site at the Kennedy Space Center, Discovery was waved off for its scheduled August 18 landing. STS-85 landed the next day, at Kennedy Space Center at 11:08 GMT. Additional Details: STS-85.
02 June 1998 STS-91 Program: Mir. Flight Crew: Precourt, Gorie, Lawrence, Chang-Diaz, Kavandi, Ryumin. Manned flight: STS-91. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 350 km. Apogee: 373 km. Inclination: 51.7 deg. Duration: 9.83 days.


STS-41STS-41 - STS-41 Discovery, OV-103, lifts off from KSC Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39

Credit: NASA. 15,126 bytes. 407 x 471 pixels.


The final shuttle-Mir mission, STS-91 recovered NASA astronaut Andy Thomas from the Mir station and took Russian space chief and ex-cosmonaut Valeri Ryumin to Mir for an inspection tour of the ageing station. This was the first test of the super lightweight Aluminium-Lithium alloy external tank, designed to increase shuttle payload to the Mir / International Space Station orbit by 4,000 kg. At 22:15 GMT Discovery entered an initial 74 x 324 km x 51.6 deg orbit, with the OMS-2 burn three quarters of an hour later circulising the chase orbit. Discovery docked with the SO module on Mir at 17:00 GMT on June 4. NASA equipment was retrieved from the station, and Discovery undocked at 16:01 GMT on June 8, and landed on Runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 18:00 GMT on June 12.
29 October 1998 STS-95 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Brown, Lindsey, Robinson, Parazynski, Duque, Mukai, Glenn. Manned flight: STS-95. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 550 km. Apogee: 561 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 8.91 days.

The flight of STS-95 provoked more publicity for NASA than any other flight in years, due to the presence of ex-astronaut Senator John Glenn on the crew, which also included the first Spanish astronaut, Pedro Duque. The US Navy PANSAT student satellite was deployed on Oct 30 into a 550 km x 561 x 28.5 degree orbit. The Spartan 201 satellite was deployed from Discovery on November 1 and retrieved on November 3. Spartan 201 was on its fifth mission to observe the solar corona. The data on this mission would be used to recalibrate the SOHO satellite which recently resumed observation of the Sun following loss of control. Discovery landed at 17:03:31 GMT November 7 on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. Additional Details: STS-95.


27 May 1999 STS-96 Program: ISS. Flight Crew: Rominger, Husband, Jernigan, Ochoa, Barry, Payette, Tokarev. Manned flight: STS-96. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 379 km. Apogee: 385 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 9.80 days.

Discovery docked at the PMA-2 end of the International Space Station PMA-2/Unity/PMA-1/Zarya stack. The crew transferred equipment from the Spacehab Logistics Double Module in the payload bay to the interior of the station. Tammy Jernigan and Dan Barry made a space walk to transfer equipment from the payload bay to the exterior of the station. The ODS/EAL docking/airlock truss carried two TSA (Tool Stowage Assembly) packets with space walk tools. The Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC), built by Energia and DASA-Bremen, carried parts of the Strela crane and the US OTD crane as well as the SHOSS box which contains three bags of tools and equipment to be stored on ISS's exterior.

The STS-96 payload bay manifest:

The STS-96 stack, on mobile launcher 2, was rolled back out to pad 39B after hail damage to the external tank had been repaired. On the launch day, solid rocket booster separation was at 10:51 GMT, main engine cut-off of external tank ET-100 at 10:57 GMT. Discovery was in an initial 74 km x 320 km x 51.6 degree transfer orbit. After the OMS-2 burn at 11:32 GMT, the orbit was 324 km x 341 km x 51.6 degree. Discovery docked with the International Space Station's PMA-2 docking port at 04:24 GMT on May 29. ISS was in a 379 km x 385 km x 51.6 degree orbit. In its configuration at that time it consisted of the PMA-2 docking port, NASA's Unity node, the NASA-owned, Russian-built Zarya module, and the PMA-1 docking unit connecting Unity and Zarya.

On May 30 at 02:56 GMT Tammy Jernigan and Dan Barry entered the payload bay of Discovery from the tunnel adapter hatch, and made a 7 hr 55 min space walk, transferring equipment to the exterior of the station.

On May 31 at 01:15 GMT the hatch to Unity was opened and the crew began several days of cargo transfers to the station. Battery units and communications equipment were replaced and sound insulation was added to Zarya. Discovery undocked from ISS at 22:39 GMT on June 3 into a 385 x 399 km x 51.6 degree orbit, leaving the station without a crew aboard. On June 5 the Starshine satellite was ejected from the payload bay. The payload bay doors were closed at around 02:15 GMT on June 6 and the deorbit burn was at 04:54 GMT. Discovery landed on runway 15 at Kennedy Space Center at 06:02 GMT. Additional Details: STS-96.


20 December 1999 STS-103 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Brown, Kelly Scott, Smith Steven, Grunsfeld, Foale, Nicollier, Clervoy. Manned flight: STS-103. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 591 km. Apogee: 610 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 7.97 days.

Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission SM-3A, delayed repeatedly by technical problems with the shuttle fleet after the near-disastrous previous launch. Finally launched after the last possible day to avoid Y2K computer problems; one spacewalk was cancelled so that the shuttle could return by December 28. Hubble was in a 591 km x 610 km x 28.5 deg orbit at launch. After separation of the external tank ET-101 the Orbiter was in a 56 km x 587 km x 28.5 deg transfer orbit. The OMS 2 burn at 0134 UTC raised the orbit to 313 km x 582 km. The payload bay contained:

Hubble was grabbed by the shuttle's robot arm at 0034 UTC on December 22. Following completion of repairs HST was released on December 25 at 2303 UTC. The deorbit burn at 2248 UTC on Dec 27 placed the orbiter in a 50 km x 616 km descent orbit. Discovery landed on runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center at 0001 UTC on December 28.
11 October 2000 STS-92 Program: ISS. Flight Crew: Duffy, Melroy, Chiao, McArthur, Wisoff, Lopez-Alegria, Wakata. Manned flight: STS-92. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 386 km. Apogee: 394 km. Inclination: 51.6 deg. Duration: 12.90 days.

STS-92 was a space station assembly flight to bring the Z-1 Truss (mounted on a Spacelab pallet), Control Moment Gyros, Pressurised Mating Adapter-3 (PMA-3) and two DDCU (Heat pipes) to the International Space Station.

The RSRM-76 solid rocket boosters separated at 23:19 GMT and main engine cut-off (MECO) came at 23:25 GMT. External tank ET-104 separated into a 74 x 323 km x 51.6 deg orbit. At apogee at 00:01 GMT on Oct 12, Discovery's OMS engines fired to raise perigee to a 158 x 322 km x 51.6 deg orbit; ET-104 re-entered over the Pacific around 00:30 GMT. At Oct 12 on 03:01 GMT the NC1 burn raised the orbit to 180 x 349 km; NC3 on Oct 12 to 311 x 375 km; and the TI burn at 14:09 GMT on Oct 13 to 375 x 381 km x 51.6 deg. Discovery's rendezvous with the International Space Station came at 15:39 GMT on Oct 13, with docking at 17:45 GMT. The spaceship docked with PMA-2, the docking port on the +Y port of the Space Station's Unity module. Hatch was open to PMA-2 at 20:30 GMT the same day.

STS-92 Cargo Manifest

Total payload bay cargo: ca. 14,800 kg

The Z1 first segment of the space station truss was built by Boeing/Canoga Park and was 3.5 x 4.5 meters in size. It was attached to the +Z port on Unity. Z1 carried the control moment gyros, the S-band antenna, and the Ku-band antenna.

PMA-3, built by Boeing/Huntington Beach, was docked to the -Z port opposite Z1. PMA-3 was installed on a Spacelab pallet for launch.

On October 14 at 16:15 GMT the Z1 segment was unberthed from the payload bay and at around 18:20 GMT it was docked to the zenith port on the Unity module.

On October 15 at 14:20 GMT the ODS airlock was depressurised, beginning a spacewalk by Bill McArthur and Leroy Chiao. Official NASA EVA duration (battery power to repress) was 6 hours 28 minutes.

The second spacewalk was on October 16, with Jeff Wisoff and Mike Lopez-Alegria. The suits went to battery power at 14:15 GMT and Wisoff left the airlock at 14:21 GMT. Repressurisation began at 21:22 GMT for a duration of 7 hours 07minutes.

Leroy Chiao and Bill McArthur began the third STS-92 EVA at 15:30 GMT on October 17, completing their work at 22:18 GMT for a total time of 6 hours 48 minutes.

After the spacewalk, Discovery completed the second of the three station reboosts scheduled for STS-92. They fired reaction control system jets in a series of pulses of 1.4 seconds each, over a 30-minute period, gently raising the station's orbit by about 3.1 km.

The last of four successful spacewalks began on 18 October at 16:00 GMT and ended at 22:56 GMT, lasting 6 hours and 56 minutes. Jeff Wisoff and Mike Lopez-Alegria each jetted slowly through space above Discovery's cargo bay.

After the space walk, Discovery completed the third and final reboost of the space station.

On 19 October the astronauts worked within the ISS. They completed connections for the newly installed Z1 external framework structure and transferred equipment and supplies for the Expedition One first resident crew of the Station. The crew also tested the four 290-kg gyroscopes in the truss, called Control Moment Gyros, which will be used to orient the ISS as it orbits the Earth. They will ultimately assume attitude control of the ISS following the arrival of the U.S. Laboratory Destiny. The tests and the transfer of supplies into the Russian Zarya Module took longer than expected. As a result, the crew's final departure from the Station's Unity module was delayed. Melroy and Wisoff took samples from surfaces in Zarya to study the module's environment. They then unclogged the solid waste disposal system in the Shuttle's toilet, which was restored to full operation after a brief interruption in service.

Discovery undocked from the ISS at 16:08 GMT on 20 October. The final separation burn was executed about 45 minutes after undocking. The crew had added 9 tonnes to the station's mass, bringing it to about 72 tonnes. The return to earth, planned for 22 October, was delayed repeatedly due to high winds at the Kennedy landing site. The landing was finally made at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on October 24, at 22:00 GMT. Additional Details: STS-92.



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