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astronautix.com Columbia

Shuttle cutaway
Shuttle cutaway
Shuttle cutaway showing deployment of LDEF

Credit: NASA. 32,921 bytes. 529 x 269 pixels.


Manufacturer's Designation: OV-102. Class: Manned. Type: Spaceplane. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Rockwell.

Columbia, the oldest orbiter in the Shuttle fleet, is named after the sloop that accomplished the first American circumnavigation of the globe. The first U.S. Navy ship to circle the globe bore that title, as did the command module for Apollo 11, the first lunar landing mission.

The spaceship was the first Space Shuttle to fly into Earth orbit in 1981. Four sister ships joined the fleet over the next 10 years: Challenger, arriving in 1982 but destroyed four years later; Discovery, 1983; Atlantis, 1985; and Endeavour, built as a replacement for Challenger, 1991. A test vehicle, the Enterprise, was used for suborbital approach and landing tests and did not fly in space. Empty Weight was 158,289 lbs at rollout and 178,000 lbs with main engines installed.



Shuttle OrbiterShuttle Orbiter - Shuttle Orbiter 2 view

Credit: © Mark Wade. 4,696 bytes. 402 x 425 pixels.


Specification

Craft.Crew Size: 8. Design Life: 16 days. Orbital Storage: 30.00 days. Total Length: 37.2 m. Maximum Diameter: 23.8 m. Total Habitable Volume: 71.50 m3. Total Mass: 104,328 kg. Total Payload: 21,190 kg. Total Propellants: 21,600 kg. Total RCS Impulse: 954,000.00 kgf-sec. Primary Engine Thrust: 24,213 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/MMH. Main Engine Isp: 316 sec. Total spacecraft delta v: 700 m/s. Electric system: 14.00 total average kW. Electric System: 6,000.00 total kWh. Electrical System: Fuel Cells.


Columbia Chronology


11 September 1969 Two major directions were identified for NASA manned space flight in the next decade. Program: Skylab. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.

Two major directions were identified for manned space flight in the next decade. These were further exploration of the Moon, with possibly the establishment of a lunar surface base, and the continued development of manned flight in Earth orbit, leading to a permanent manned space station supported by a low-cost shuttle system. To maintain direction, the following key milestones were proposed: 1972 - AAP operations using a Saturn V launched Workshop 1973 - Start of post-Apollo lunar exploration 1974 - Start of suborbital flight tests of Earth to orbit shuttle - Launch of a second Saturn V Workshop 1975 - Initial space station operations - Orbital shuttle flights 1976 - Lunar orbit station - Full shuttle operations 1977 - Nuclear stage flight test 1978 - Nuclear shuttle operations-orbit to orbit 1979 - Space station in synchronous orbit By 1990 - Earth orbit space base - Lunar surface base - Possible Mars landing



STS-1STS-1 - Detailed drawing of STS-1 Columbia

Credit: NASA. 58,292 bytes. 612 x 456 pixels.


27 March 1975 Shuttle Columbia fuselage assembly starts. Program: STS. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.

Start long-lead fabrication aft fuselage, Columbia (OV-102)


17 November 1975 Columbia crew module started. Program: STS.

Start long-lead fabrication of crew module, Columbia (OV-102)


13 December 1976 Start assembly upper forward fuselage, Columbia Program: STS.
03 January 1977 Start assembly vertical stabilizer, Columbia Program: STS.
10 February 1977 Midfuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
26 August 1977 Deliver wings on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
07 September 1977 Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia Program: STS.

STS-1STS-1 - STS 1 Shuttle Columbia firing main engines

Credit: NASA. 29,157 bytes. 620 x 412 pixels.


28 October 1977 Lower forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia Program: STS.
04 November 1977 Deliver aft fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia Program: STS.
07 November 1977 Start final assembly Columbia. Program: STS.

Start final assembly and closeout system installation, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102)


10 January 1978 Vertical stabilizer on dock, Palmdale, Columbia Program: STS.
17 February 1978 Crew module on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
24 February 1978 Body flap on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
06 March 1978 Upper forward fuselage on dock, Palmdale, Columbia Program: STS.

STS-1STS-1 - Launch view of the Columbia for the STS-1 mission, April 12, 1981

Credit: NASA. 24,110 bytes. 340 x 474 pixels.


19 March 1978 Aft payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia Program: STS.
23 April 1978 Columbia ready for power-on. Program: STS.

Complete final assembly and closeout system installation, ready for power-on, Columbia (OV-102)


24 April 1978 Start precombined systems test, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
28 April 1978 Forward payload bay doors on dock, Columbia. Program: STS.

Forward payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102)


26 May 1978 Complete forward RCS structure, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
07 July 1978 Complete mate payload bay doors, Columbia Program: STS.

Complete mate forward and aft payload bay doors, Columbia (OV-102)



STS-1STS-1 - Launch view of the Columbia for the STS-1 mission, April 12, 1981

Credit: NASA. 15,524 bytes. 342 x 330 pixels.


11 August 1978 Complete forward RCS, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
25 September 1978 Start precombined system test, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
15 December 1978 Complete precombined system test, Columbia. Program: STS.
03 February 1979 Complete combined systems test, Palmdale, Columbia Program: STS.
16 February 1979 Airlock on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
05 March 1979 Complete postcheckout, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) Program: STS.
08 March 1979 Columbia (OV-102) transported overland to Edwards. Program: STS. Launch Site: Edwards .


STS-1STS-1 - Launch view of the Columbia for the STS-1 mission, April 12, 1981

Credit: NASA. 27,907 bytes. 340 x 475 pixels.


Columbia (OV-102) transported overland from Palmdale to Edwards (38 miles)
09 March 1979 Shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia test flight Program: STS. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.

Shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) test flight at NASA Edwards


20 March 1979 Ferry flight, Edwards to El Paso Program: STS.

Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Edwards to Biggs Army Air Base, El Paso, Texas (3 hours, 20 minutes)


22 March 1979 Ferry flight El Paso to Kelly AFB Program: STS.

Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Biggs Army Air Base to Kelly AFB, San Antonio, Texas (1 hr, 39 min)


23 March 1979 Ferry flight, Kelly AFB to Eglin AFB, Fla Program: STS.

Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Kelly AFB to Eglin AFB, Fla. (2 hours, 12 minutes)



STS-1STS-1 - Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia on approach for landing Edwards Air Force Base

Credit: NASA. 18,381 bytes. 588 x 261 pixels.


24 March 1979 Ferry flight, Eglin AFB to KSC Program: STS.

Ferry flight, shuttle carrier aircraft/Columbia (OV-102) from Eglin AFB to KSC (1 hour, 33 minutes)


10 May 1979 Deliver right-hand OMS/RCS for Columbia Program: STS.

Deliver right-hand OMS/RCS from McDonnell Douglas, St. Louis, to KSC, Columbia (OV-102)


15 May 1979 Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS for Columbia Program: STS.

Deliver left-hand OMS/RCS from McDonnell Douglas to KSC, Columbia (OV-102)


01 September 1979 STS-2A Program: STS. Flight Crew: Haise, Lousma.

In late 1977 shuttle orbital missions were due to start in 1979. The orbiting Skylab space station was not expected to decay until 1983. A plan to save Skylab was developed. In Phase 1a small Skylab Reboost Module would be docked to Skylab on the second Shuttle flight. This would boost the station to a higher orbit for later use, and also provide the capability of deorbiting the station into empty ocean if the decision was taken to abandon it. Astronauts Haise and Lousma were selected for this flight, and development of the reboost module was begun. But it was not to be. Aside from intense resistance from some factions at NASA headquarters, higher solar activity resulted in heavier than predicted drag on Skylab. The shuttle program also was hit with delays. Before the first shuttle flew, Skylab burned up in the atmosphere and crashed into the Australian outback on July 11, 1979. Additional Details: STS-2A.



STS-1STS-1 - Aerial ground views of the Columbia sitting on the Lakebed Runway

Credit: NASA. 29,284 bytes. 622 x 365 pixels.


12 April 1981 STS-1 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Crippen, Young. Manned flight: STS-1. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 4,909 kg. Perigee: 240 km. Apogee: 251 km. Inclination: 40.3 deg. Duration: 2.26 days.

First flight of Space Transportation System (aka Space Shuttle).. Payloads: Development Flight Instrumentation and Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package. Additional Details: STS-1.


12 November 1981 STS-2 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Engle, Truly. Manned flight: STS-2. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 8,517 kg. Perigee: 222 km. Apogee: 231 km. Inclination: 38.0 deg. Duration: 2.26 days.


STS-2STS-2 - Space shuttle Columbia being lowered down toward the solid rocket boosters

Credit: NASA. 22,807 bytes. 348 x 477 pixels.


Second shuttle test flight. Payloads: Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA)-1 experiments, Orbiter Experiments (OEX). Additional Details: STS-2.
22 March 1982 STS-3 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Fullerton, Lousma. Manned flight: STS-3. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 10,301 kg. Perigee: 241 km. Apogee: 249 km. Inclination: 38.0 deg. Duration: 8.00 days.

Manned two crew. Payloads: Office of Space Science (OSS) experiments, Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Electro-phoresis Verification Test (EEVT), Plant Lignification Experiment. First and only landing by a shuttle at White Sands, New Mexico, after weather at Edwards did not permit landing there. Additional Details: STS-3.



STS-2STS-2 - Space Shuttle Columbia OV (101) launching from pad 39A begining STS-2

Credit: NASA. 44,220 bytes. 619 x 447 pixels.


27 June 1982 STS-4 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Hartsfield, Mattingly. Manned flight: STS-4. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 11,109 kg. Perigee: 295 km. Apogee: 302 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 7.05 days.

Manned two crew. Fourth space shuttle test flight. Payloads: Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), Development Flight Instrumentation (DFl), Orbiter Experiments (OEX), first NASA getaway special (GAS), Night/Day Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment, Vapor Phase Compression (VPC) freezer heat exchanger dynamics for freezing samples, Aerodynamic Coefficient Identification Package (AClP) experiment. Additional Details: STS-4.



STS-2STS-2 - View of the Columbia's open payload bay and the Canadian RMS

Credit: NASA. 47,243 bytes. 626 x 477 pixels.


11 November 1982 STS-5 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Allen, Brand, Lenoir, Overmyer. Manned flight: STS-5. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 14,551 kg. Perigee: 294 km. Apogee: 317 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 5.09 days.

Manned four crew. First mission to deploy commercial communications satellites (SBS 3, Anik C3). Payloads: : Satellite Business Systems (SBS)-C with Payload Assist ; (PAM)-D; Telesat-E (Canadian communications satellite) with PAM-D. Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR), Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES), three getaway specials (GAS), Student experiments, GLOW experiment, Vestibular experiment, Oxygen Interaction With Materials experiment. Additional Details: STS-5.



STS-2STS-2 - Views of STS-2 Columbia landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California

Credit: NASA. 19,568 bytes. 506 x 287 pixels.


28 November 1983 STS-9 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Garriot, Lichtenberg, Merbold, Parker, Shaw, Young. Manned flight: STS-9. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 15,088 kg. Perigee: 241 km. Apogee: 254 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 10.32 days.

Carried ESA Spacelab. Payloads: Payload: Spacelab-1 experiments, habitable Spacelab and pallet, carried 71 experiments. The six-man crew was divided into two 12-hour-day red and blue teams to operate experiments. First high-inclination orbit of 57 degrees. Additional Details: STS-9.



STS-3STS-3 - Night firing of orbiter Columbia's thrusters

Credit: NASA. 9,406 bytes. 547 x 287 pixels.


01 November 1985 STS-51-H Program: STS. Manned flight: STS-51-H. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle.

Planned EOM-1/2 shuttle mission. Cancelled due to payload delays.


12 January 1986 STS-61-C Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bolden, Cenker, Chang-Diaz, Gibson, Hawley, Nelson, Nelson Bill. Manned flight: STS-61-C. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 14,724 kg. Perigee: 331 km. Apogee: 338 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 6.09 days.


STS-3STS-3 - View of the Columbia's aft section while over Morocco's Atlantic Coast

Credit: NASA. 35,048 bytes. 487 x 473 pixels.


Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Payloads: Deploy SATCOM (RCA-Satellite Communi-cations) Ku-1 with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D II. Materials Science Laboratory, Comet Halley Active Monitoring Experiment (CHAMP), Hitchhiker (HH) Goddard (G)-1, thirteen getaway specials (GAS), student experiment, Initial Blood Storage Equipment (lBSE), Characterization of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). Additional Details: STS-61-C.
06 March 1986 STS-61-E Program: STS. Flight Crew: McBride, Richards, Leestma, Hoffman, Parker, Durrance, Parise.

Planned Astro-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.



STS-4STS-4 - View of the Columbia's RMS arm and end effector grasping IECM

Credit: NASA. 32,809 bytes. 441 x 469 pixels.


24 June 1986 STS-61-H Program: STS. Flight Crew: Coats, Blaha, Springer, Buchli, Fisher, Sudarmo, Wood Nigel.

Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.


01 October 1986 STS-61-K Program: STS. Flight Crew: Brand, Griggs, Stewart, Nicollier, Garriot, Lichtenberg, Lampton, Stevenson.


STS-9STS-9 - Launch of STS-9 Space Shuttle Columbia

Credit: NASA. 41,860 bytes. 621 x 469 pixels.


Planned EOM-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster. No crew named, later combined with STS-61K
01 January 1987 STS-71-A Program: STS. Flight Crew: Nordsieck.

Planned Astro-2 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.


01 February 1987 STS-71-D Program: STS. Flight Crew: Wood Robert.

Planned shuttle mission for deployment of commercial communications satellites. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.


01 August 1987 STS-71-M Program: STS. Flight Crew: Nordsieck.

Planned Astro-3 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.


08 August 1989 STS-28 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Adamson, Brown Mark, Leestma, Richards, Shaw. Manned flight: STS-28. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 289 km. Apogee: 306 km. Inclination: 57.0 deg. Duration: 5.04 days.


STS-9STS-9 - View of the Spacelab module in the payload bay of the Columbia during STS-9

Credit: NASA. 43,071 bytes. 484 x 395 pixels.


Manned five crew. Deployed 2 classified satellites. Landed at: Runway 17 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base, . Landing Speed: 287 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 1,618.00 m. Landing Rollout: 1,833.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission. Additional Details: STS-28.
09 January 1990 STS-32 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Brandenstein, Dunbar, Ivins, Low, Wetherbee. Manned flight: STS-32. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 12,014 kg. Perigee: 296 km. Apogee: 361 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 10.88 days.


STS-9STS-9 - Post landing view of the Columbia on runway with deservicing vehicles & crew

Credit: NASA. 14,914 bytes. 611 x 239 pixels.


Manned five crew. Deployed Leasat 5, retrieved LDEF. Night landing. Payloads: Deployment of Syncom IV-5, retrieval of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA)-3, Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) III-2, Latitude/Longitude Locator (L3), American Flight Echocardiograph (AFE), Characterization of Neurospora Circadian Rhythms in Space (CNCR)-01, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS)-4, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), IMAX, Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (lOCM). Additional Details: STS-32.
02 December 1990 STS-35 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Brand, Durrance, Gardner Guy, Hoffman, Lounge, Parise, Parker. Manned flight: STS-35. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 11,943 kg. Perigee: 352 km. Apogee: 362 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 8.96 days.


STS-61-CSTS-61-C - Piece of thermal insulation tile floats near the Shuttle Columbia

Credit: NASA. 30,937 bytes. 514 x 464 pixels.


Manned seven crew. Carried ASTRO-1 observatory. Payloads: Ultraviolet Astronomy TeIescope (Astro), Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS). Additional Details: STS-35.
05 June 1991 STS-40 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bagian, Gaffney, Gutierrez, Hughes-Fulford, Jernigan, O´Connor, Seddon. Manned flight: STS-40. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 11,767 kg. Perigee: 287 km. Apogee: 296 km. Inclination: 39.0 deg. Duration: 9.09 days.


STS-61-CSTS-61-C - The SATCOM Ku-1 commuications satellite deployed from Columbia

Credit: NASA. 31,969 bytes. 479 x 474 pixels.


Carried Spacelab life sciences module. Payloads: Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS)-1 with long module, getaway special bridge assembly with 12 getaway specials, Physiological Monitoring System (PMS), Urine Monitoring System (UMS), Animal Enclosure Modules (AEM), Middeck Zero-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), 7 Orbiter Experiments Program experiments. Additional Details: STS-40.
25 June 1992 STS-50 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Baker, Bowersox, DeLucas, Dunbar, Meade, Richards, Trinh. Manned flight: STS-50. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 11,153 kg. Perigee: 302 km. Apogee: 309 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 13.81 days.


STS-61-CSTS-61-C - Night landing of Shuttle Columbia at Edwards AFB and end of STS 61-C mission

Credit: NASA. 43,233 bytes. 571 x 275 pixels.


Carried United States Microgravity Laboratory. First extended-duration mission. Payloads: United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-1; Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE); Investigations Into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX)-ll; Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPl) . Additional Details: STS-50.
22 October 1992 STS-52 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Baker Mike, Jernigan, MacLean, Shepherd, Veach, Wetherbee. Manned flight: STS-52. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 9,106 kg. Perigee: 304 km. Apogee: 307 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 9.87 days.


STS-28STS-28 - STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, Pilot Richards adjusts LES before bailout exercises

Credit: NASA. 21,060 bytes. 280 x 374 pixels.


Deployed Lageos 2, CTA. Payloads: Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS) II/ Italian Research Interim Stage (IRIS), Canadian Experiments (CANEX) 2, United States Micro-gravity Payload (USMP) 1, Attitude Sensor Pack-age (ASP), Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Heat Pipe Performance (HPP) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), Commercial Materials ITA Experiment (CMIX), Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE). Additional Details: STS-52.
25 April 1993 STS-55 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Harris, Henricks, Nagel, Precourt, Ross, Schlegel, Walter. Manned flight: STS-55. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 12,185 kg. Perigee: 304 km. Apogee: 312 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 9.99 days.


STS-28STS-28 - STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, lifts off from KSC Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B

Credit: NASA. 15,156 bytes. 411 x 441 pixels.


Manned seven crew. Carried German Spacelab-D2. Payloads: Spacelab D-2 with long module, unique support structure (USS), and Reaction Kinetics in Glass Melts (RKGM) getaway special, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II. Additional Details: STS-55.
18 October 1993 STS-58 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Blaha, Fettman, Lucid, McArthur, Searfoss, Seddon, Wolf. Manned flight: STS-58. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 10,517 kg. Perigee: 284 km. Apogee: 294 km. Inclination: 39.0 deg. Duration: 14.01 days.


STS-28STS-28 - STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, Pilot Richards at forward flight deck pilots station

Credit: NASA. 61,628 bytes. 620 x 441 pixels.


Biological, microgravity experiments aboard Spacelab 2. Payloads: Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) 2, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II. Additional Details: STS-58.
04 March 1994 STS-62 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Allen Andy, Casper, Gemar, Ivins, Thuot. Manned flight: STS-62. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 8,870 kg. Perigee: 246 km. Apogee: 309 km. Inclination: 39.0 deg. Duration: 13.97 days.

Carried USMP-2, OAST-2, SAMPIE, TES, EISG. Payloads: United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) 2, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) 2, Dexterous End Effector (DEE), Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), Limited-Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Auroral Photography Experiment Phase B (APE-B), Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Bioreactor Demonstration System A. Additional Details: STS-62.



STS-28STS-28 - STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, MS Brown juggles food containers on middeck

Credit: NASA. 67,881 bytes. 622 x 435 pixels.


08 July 1994 STS-65 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Cabana, Chiao, Halsell, Hieb, Mukai, Thomas, Walz. Manned flight: STS-65. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 10,811 kg. Perigee: 257 km. Apogee: 257 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 14.75 days.

Carried IML-2; microgravity, biology experiments. Payloads: International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) 2, Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). Additional Details: STS-65.



STS-28STS-28 - STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, MS Brown uses ARRIFLEX camera on aft flight deck

Credit: NASA. 53,061 bytes. 591 x 440 pixels.


20 October 1995 STS-73 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Bowersox, Coleman, Leslie, Lopez-Alegria, Rominger, Sacco, Thornton. Manned flight: STS-73. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 15,250 kg. Perigee: 241 km. Apogee: 241 km. Inclination: 39.0 deg. Duration: 15.91 days.

Carried USML-2 for microgravity experiments (attached to Columbia). Payloads: United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML) 2, Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). Additional Details: STS-73.



STS-28STS-28 - STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, landing at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) California

Credit: NASA. 16,068 bytes. 614 x 234 pixels.


22 February 1996 STS-75 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Allen Andy, Chang-Diaz, Cheli, Guidoni, Hoffman, Horowitz, Nicollier. Manned flight: STS-75. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Mass: 10,592 kg. Perigee: 277 km. Apogee: 320 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 15.74 days.

Carried TSS-1R tether satellite; satellite tether broke during deployment, making TSS-1R an unintentional free flyer

Payloads: Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Reflight (1R); Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) (part of United States Microgravity Payload 3); USMP-3; Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) 09, Block IV; Middeck Glovebox Experiment (MGBX) (part of USMP-3). During the deployment of TSS, the tether broke and the satellite was lost. Additional Details: STS-75.



STS-28STS-28 - STS-28 MS Adamson inspects Columbia's, OV-102's, thermal protection system

Credit: NASA. 43,667 bytes. 512 x 470 pixels.


20 June 1996 STS-78 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Brady, Favier, Helms, Henricks, Kregel, Linnehan, Thirsk. Manned flight: STS-78. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 246 km. Apogee: 261 km. Inclination: 39.0 deg. Duration: 16.91 days.

Carried Life and Microgravity Spacelab; human biological and microgravity experiments. Landed KSC July 7. Additional Details: STS-78.


19 November 1996 STS-80 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Cockrell, Rominger, Musgrave, Jernigan, Jones. Manned flight: STS-80. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 318 km. Apogee: 375 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 17.66 days.


STS-32STS-32 - Air-to-air view of STS-32 Columbia, OV-102, liftoff and SRB separation

Credit: NASA. 10,844 bytes. 279 x 459 pixels.


Mission STS-80 carried the Orfeus astronomy satellite, the Wake Shield Facility, and spacewalk equipment. The Orfeus satellite was deployed on November 20. It carried an ultraviolet telescope and spectrographs. Wake Shield Facility was deployed on November 22 and retrieved on November 26 . On 1996 Nov 29, crewmembers Tamara Jernigan and Thomas Jones were to conduct the first of several planned EVAs. However the shuttle's exit hatch would not open and NASA cancelled this and the other planned spacewalks of the mission. On December 4 at the astronauts retrieved the Orfeus satellite using the RMS arm. Reentry attempts on Dec 5 and Dec 6 were called off due to bad weather. Columbia finally landed at 11:49 GMT December 7 on Runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center, making STS-80 the longest shuttle mission to that date . Additional Details: STS-80.
04 April 1997 STS-83 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Halsell, Kilrain, Voss Janice, Gernhardt, Crouch, Linteris, Thomas. Manned flight: STS-83. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle . Perigee: 298 km. Apogee: 302 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 3.97 days.

The launch of STS-83, the first Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission, was postponed for a day to replace some insulation around a water coolant line in Columbia's payload bay. Liftoff was further delayed 20 minutes due to anomalous oxygen readings in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-83 was cut short due to a problem with one of the three fuel cells that provide electricity and water to Columbia (flight rules required that all three must be operating). At 14:30 GMT on April 6 the crew were ordered to begin a Minimum Duration Flight (MDF). On April 8 the OMS engines ignited at 17:30 GMT for the deorbit burn, and Columbia landed on Runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center at 18:33 GMT.

With delays in International Space Station construction leaving ample room in the shuttle schedule, NASA made the unique decision to leave the equipment installed in Columbia and refly this mission with the same crew later in 1997 as STS-94. Additional Details: STS-83.


01 July 1997 STS-94 Program: STS. Flight Crew: Halsell, Kilrain, Voss Janice, Gernhardt, Thomas, Crouch, Linteris. Manned flight: STS-94. Launch Site: Cape Canaveral . Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. Perigee: 296 km. Apogee: 300 km. Inclination: 28.5 deg. Duration: 15.70 days.

STS-94 was the reflight, with the same equipment and crew, of the curtailed STS-83 mission. Cargo Bay Payloads:



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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