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LM Truck 160 pixels
LM Truck 160 pixels -

Credit: © Mark Wade. 2,463 bytes. 240 x 156 pixels.



Other Designations: LM Truck. Class: Manned. Type: Lunar Lander. Nation: USA. Manufacturer: Grumman.

LM Descent stage adapted for unmanned delivery of payloads of up to 5,000 kg to lunar surface in support of Apollo-based lunar base. Added to descent stage: Navigation and guidance system (126 kg); stability and control system (49 kg); reaction control system (250 kg); communications (21 kg); ECS for equipment (58 kg). The LM Truck would make precision landings using radio landing beacons prepositioned by the lunar base staff. The Truck could be accompanied by an Apollo CSM on a purely lunar orbital mission. Alternatively two Trucks could be delivered in a single unmanned Saturn V mission, with a partially-fueled Apollo Service Module being used for the lunar orbit insertion maneuver.


Specification

Total Length: 3.2 m. Maximum Diameter: 9.4 m. Total Mass: 8,990 kg. Total Propellants: 7,420 kg. Primary Engine Thrust: 4,491 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Main Engine Isp: 311 sec. Electrical System: Batteries.


Apollo LM Truck Chronology


01 July 1964 Apollo Logistic Support System Office investigates extensions of Apollo hardware. Program: Apollo X.

The recent creation of the Apollo Logistic Support System Office in Washington prompted the formal investigation of a variety of extensions of Apollo hardware to achieve greater scientific and exploratory dividends from Apollo hardware. Director of Special Manned Space Flight Studies William B. Taylor suggested to William E. Stoney and others in Houston that Grumman receive a study contract to investigate possible modifications to the lunar excursion module (LEM) to create a LEM truck (concepts which the company had already investigated preliminarily on an in-house basis). The time was appropriate, Taylor said, for more intensive and formal efforts along these lines.



Post-Apollo lunarPost-Apollo lunar - Comparison of American post-Apollo lunar spacecraft.

Credit: © Mark Wade. 7,240 bytes. 737 x 249 pixels.


01 August 1965 Grumman final report on a study of LEM utilization for AES Earth-orbit missions. Program: Apollo X.

Grumman submitted to NASA its final report on a study of AES for Earth-orbit missions (conducted under the firm's contract for a LEM utilization study). The five-volume report comprised general engineering studies, mission and configuration descriptions for different groups of experiments (both NASA's and those for the Air Force's Manned Orbiting- Laboratory), and a cost and schedule analysis. Additional Details: Grumman final report on a study of LEM utilization for AES Earth-orbit missions..



Lunar ExplorationLunar Exploration - Lunar Exploration Plans

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11 July 1966 NASA leaders make several significant program decisions affecting AAP and post-Apollo development planning.

Meeting at Headquarters, Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller, and Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications Homer E. Newell made several significant program decisions affecting AAP and post-Apollo development planning in general: MSFC would be the lead Center for developing the ATM and would be responsible for all astronomy experiments. MSFC would be the lead Center for 'lunar engineering'-i.e., design and development of lunar exploration vehicles (including surface modules, supply trucks, and roving vehicles). MSC would have responsibility for Earth resources and lunar scientific experiments.



LM TruckLM Truck

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01 December 1966 John H. Disher released the report by a study group at Headquarters on various modified lunar modules suitable for a lunar exploration program as part of AAP. Program: Apollo X.

These modified craft took the form of a LM taxi, ferry and logistics craft, a LM shelter, and an 'augmented' LM. Disher authorized MSC to extend its engineering studies contract with Grumman to further define such modified LM configurations. He also asked MSFC to try to increase the Saturn V's translunar injection capability to 46 720 kg. These actions, he explained, afforded an opportunity to pursue any of several alternatives once future landing levels were known.



Langley 1,460 kg LMLangley 1,460 kg LM - Langley 1,460 kg lunar lander

Credit: © Mark Wade. 1,779 bytes. 159 x 193 pixels.


05 January 1968 NASA lunar exploration program developed for the period from the first lunar landing to the mid-1970s. Program: Apollo X.

A lunar exploration program had been developed which would cover the period from the first lunar landing to the mid-1970s. The program would be divided into four phases: (1) An Apollo phase employing Apollo hardware. (2) A lunar exploration phase untilizing an extended LM with increased landed payload weight and staytime capability. (3) A lunar orbital survey and exploration phase using the AAP-1A carrier or the LM/ATM to mount remote sensors and photographic equipment on a manned polar orbit mission. (4) A lunar surface rendezvous and exploration phase which would use a modified LM in an unmanned landing to provide increased scientific payload and expendables necessary to extend an accompanying manned LM mission to two weeks duration.



Post-Apollo lunarPost-Apollo lunar - Comparison of American post-Apollo lunar spacecraft.

Credit: © Mark Wade. 12,347 bytes. 557 x 467 pixels.



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Last update 12 March 2001.
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