This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at www.astronautix.com

astronautix.com Apollo LM Taxi

Apollo Lunar Module
Apollo Lunar Module -

Credit: © Mark Wade. 1,341 bytes. 159 x 121 pixels.



Other Designations: LM Taxi. Class: Manned. Type: Lunar Lander. Nation: USA. Manufacturer: Grumman.

Essentially the basic Apollo LM modified for extended lunar surface stays. This was forseen to be the workhorse of both Apollo Applications Extended Lunar Surface Missions beginning in 1970 and still be used to shuttle crews to the surface to larger LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) in the mid- to late- 1970's. Changes included additional water, oxygen, LH2, and Lox tankage in the descent stage in the payload bays; fuel cells in the ascent stage; a redundance Lox tank in the ascent stage over the back of the LM; and additonal micrometeorite and radiation shielding. This would permit the LM to accomodate a crew of three with the capability for a 14-day quiescent (inactive) lunar stay time, in addition to 3 days (active) operational time. The LM Taxi would land near the previously-landed LM Shelter or LESA Shelter, where the crew would spend most of its time during surface explorations lasting from 14 days to three months.


Specification

Craft.Crew Size: 3. Design Life: 14 days. Total Length: 6.4 m. Maximum Diameter: 4.3 m. Total Habitable Volume: 6.65 m3. Total Mass: 14,700 kg. Total Propellants: 10,500 kg. Primary Engine Thrust: 4,491 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/UDMH. Main Engine Isp: 311 sec. Total spacecraft delta v: 3,700 m/s. Electrical System: Fuel Cells.


Apollo LM Taxi Chronology


Lunar Module 3 viewLunar Module 3 view

Credit: © Mark Wade. 10,188 bytes. 586 x 444 pixels.



26 December 1963 Extension of Apollo systems to permit more extensive exploration of the lunar surface. Program: Apollo X. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.

MSFC Director Wernher von Braun described to Apollo Spacecraft Program Manager Joseph F. Shea a possible extension of Apollo systems to permit more extensive exploration of the lunar surface. Huntsville's concept, called the Integrated Lunar Exploration System, involved a dual Saturn V mission (with rendezvous in lunar orbit) to deliver an integrated lunar taxi/shelter spacecraft to the Moon's surface. Additional Details: Extension of Apollo systems to permit more extensive exploration of the lunar surface..


01 August 1965 Grumman final report on a study of LEM utilization for AES Earth-orbit missions. Program: Apollo X.


Lunar ExplorationLunar Exploration - Lunar Exploration Plans

Credit: © Mark Wade. 15,347 bytes. 635 x 472 pixels.


Grumman submitted to NASA its final report on a study of AES for Earth-orbit missions (conducted under the firm's contract for a LEM utilization study). The five-volume report comprised general engineering studies, mission and configuration descriptions for different groups of experiments (both NASA's and those for the Air Force's Manned Orbiting- Laboratory), and a cost and schedule analysis. Additional Details: Grumman final report on a study of LEM utilization for AES Earth-orbit missions..
19 October 1966 MSFC Director Wernher von Braun described to his MSC counterpart Robert R. Gilruth his ideas for transferring to Houston the bulk of MSFC's lunar exploration studies and development contracts. Program: Apollo X.

(As a result of the 13-15 August Lake Logan meeting, Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., had designated MSC the lead Center for lunar science.) von Braun proposed that planning for AAP-type lunar traverses and a wide variety of lunar scientific experiments (including a scientific package of experiments to he emplaced near landing sites) be transferred to Houston. On the other hand, he believed that lunar roving and flying devices, the AAP lunar drill, and the lunar surveying system should be retained at Huntsville, saying that these projects were of an engineering rather than a scientific nature and that, with MSFC's in-house capability for engineering work of this type, his Center could make substantial-and cost- effective-contributions to lunar exploration.



Post-Apollo lunarPost-Apollo lunar - Comparison of American post-Apollo lunar spacecraft.

Credit: © Mark Wade. 12,347 bytes. 557 x 467 pixels.


01 December 1966 John H. Disher released the report by a study group at Headquarters on various modified lunar modules suitable for a lunar exploration program as part of AAP. Program: Apollo X.

These modified craft took the form of a LM taxi, ferry and logistics craft, a LM shelter, and an 'augmented' LM. Disher authorized MSC to extend its engineering studies contract with Grumman to further define such modified LM configurations. He also asked MSFC to try to increase the Saturn V's translunar injection capability to 46 720 kg. These actions, he explained, afforded an opportunity to pursue any of several alternatives once future landing levels were known.


05 January 1968 NASA lunar exploration program developed for the period from the first lunar landing to the mid-1970s. Program: Apollo X.


Post-Apollo lunarPost-Apollo lunar - Comparison of American post-Apollo lunar spacecraft.

Credit: © Mark Wade. 7,240 bytes. 737 x 249 pixels.


A lunar exploration program had been developed which would cover the period from the first lunar landing to the mid-1970s. The program would be divided into four phases: (1) An Apollo phase employing Apollo hardware. (2) A lunar exploration phase untilizing an extended LM with increased landed payload weight and staytime capability. (3) A lunar orbital survey and exploration phase using the AAP-1A carrier or the LM/ATM to mount remote sensors and photographic equipment on a manned polar orbit mission. (4) A lunar surface rendezvous and exploration phase which would use a modified LM in an unmanned landing to provide increased scientific payload and expendables necessary to extend an accompanying manned LM mission to two weeks duration.

Bibliography:



Back to Index
Last update 12 March 2001.
Contact Mark Wade with any corrections or comments.
Conditions for use of drawings, pictures, or other materials from this site..
© Mark Wade, 2001 .